Kratom and Other Mitragynines: The Chemistry and Pharmacology of Opioids from a Non-Opium Source

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Robert B. Raffa
CRC Press, Oct 29, 2014 - Medical - 366 pages
Opioids such as morphine, codeine, and oxycodone are extracts or analogs isolated from a single source: the opium poppy. For a long time, it was believed to be nature's only source of opioids. But it now appears that biological diversity has evolved an alternative source of opioid compounds-those derived from the plant Mitragyna speciosa. This plan
 

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Contents

Why Do Plants Contain Biologically Active Compounds?
1
Short Overview of Mitragynines
9
Psychopharmacological Indole Alkaloids from Terrestrial Plants
23
Salvinorin A Example of a Non Alkaloidal Bioactive Opioid from a Plant Source
39
The Botany of Mitragyna speciosa Korth Havil and Related Species
57
Phytochemistry of Mitragyna speciosa
77
Chemistry of Mitragynines A Brief Introduction
95
Chemistry of Mitragyna Alkaloids
101
Analgesic Effects of Mitragynine and Analogs
177
NonAnalgesic CNS Effects
195
Other OpioidAssociated Endpoints
205
The Kratom Experience from Firsthand Reports
213
The Toxicology of Indole Alkaloids
245
OpioidInduced Adverse Effects and Toxicity
257
Toxicology of Mitragynine and Analogs
281
The Use of Animal Models to Measure Tolerance Dependence and Abuse Potential
297

Medicinal Chemistry Based on Mitragynine
117
Chemical Structures of Opioids
135
The Detection of Mitragynine and Its Analogs
153
The ADME of Mitragynine and Analogs
167
Kratom The Epidemiology Use and Abuse Addiction Potential and Legal Status
309
Bibliography
321
Back Cover
337
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About the author (2014)

Robert B. Raffa is a professor of pharmacology in the Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences at Temple University School of Pharmacy as well as a research professor in the Department of Pharmacology at Temple University School of Medicine. He has bachelor's degrees in chemical engineering and in physiological psychology, master's degrees in biomedical engineering and toxicology, and a doctorate in pharmacology. Dr. Raffa was co-leader for analgesics discovery at Johnson & Johnson and was pivotal in the elucidation of the mechanism of action and development of the analgesic drug tramadol (Ultram ). He is the co-holder of several patents, including the combination of tramadol plus acetaminophen (Ultracet ). He has published more than 280 scientific articles in peer-reviewd journals and is the co-author or editor of several books.

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