## Anticipatory Systems: Philosophical, Mathematical and Methodological FoundationsThe first detailed study of this most important class of systems which contain internal predictive models of themselves and/or of their environments and whose predictions are utilized for purposes of present control. This book develops the basic concept of a predictive model, and shows how it can be embedded into a system of feedforward control. Includes many examples and stresses analogies between wired-in anticipatory control and processes of learning and adaption, at both individual and social levels. Shows how the basic theory of such systems throws a new light both on analytic problems (understanding what is going on in an organism or a social system) and synthetic ones (developing forecasting methods for making individual or collective decisions). |

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### Contents

1 | |

Chapter 2 Natural and Formal Systems | 45 |

Chapter 3 The Modelling Relation | 89 |

Chapter 4 The Encodings of Time | 221 |

Chapter 5 Open Systems and the Modelling Relation | 277 |

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### Common terms and phrases

abstract adaptive analogous anticipatory systems arising axioms basic behavior bifurcation biological called cartesian product Chapter characterize complex concept consider constitutive parameters corresponding defined definite described determined developed diagram differential discrepancy discussion dynamical system elements encoding entirely equations of motion equivalence class equivalence relation error essential establish Euclidean example expressed fact formal system function functor genome geometry Hamiltonian hence ideas imposed initial input instant interaction involves Ising model kind Let us suppose linkage relations logical mapping mathematical metaphor meter modelling relation n-tuples natural system neuron Newtonian noted observables organism output paradigm particles particular percepts pertaining phase space phenotype physical precisely properties propositions qualities question rates of change real numbers regarded represent seen selection mechanism senescence sense simple situation specific statistical mechanics structure subset subsystems temporal theorem theory thermodynamic thermodynamic equilibrium topological spaces trajectory transformation values variables