Russia and the Mongol Yoke: The History of the Russian Principalities and the Golden Horde, 1221-1502
The Mongol empire was fully established in 1237 and dominated a vast area of Asia for the next two and a half centuries. The Russian principalities were deeply divided and therefore fell easy prey to the formidable and experienced Mongol armies which swept from the east across the whole region. Indeed the persistence of these divisions helps to explain the prolonged period of rule by the small Mongol armies.
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Russia before the First Mongol Invasion I
The Founding of the Mongol Empire
The Mongol Empire in 1227 xii
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Ahmed Alef Allsen Andrei attack battle Batu Batu's became Berke boyars brother Byzantine campaign Casimir Caucasus century Church conflict Constantinople Crimea Crimean khanate Crummey Daniil death decided defeat died Dmitri Shemiaka east eldest emperor Fennel fled Galicia Genghis Khan Golden Horde grand-prince of Vladimir Grousset Halperin Hellmann Hungary Iakoubovsky Ibid important invaded Ivan Ivan III Ivan's Jagiello Jochi Kazan khan's Kiev king of Poland Kiprian large number Lithuania Mengli Girai metropolitan Mikhail military Mongke Mongol army Mongol empire Moscow Muscovy Nitsche Nogai north-east Novgorod Ogodei Olgerd Orthodox Ottoman Ozbeg Pereiaslavl Persia political Polovtsi Presniakov principality Pskov Qipchak quriltai region reign returned Riazan Riiss river ruler Russian princes Sarai situation Smolensk South Russia Spuler steppes Stokl struggle Subedei succession successor sultan Suzdal Suzdal-Vladimir Tamerlane Tatars territory title of grand-prince Tokhtamysh took Toqta trade tribes troops Tver Ulug Vasili Vasili II Vernadsky Vitovt Volga Volhynia Yaroslav Yuri