Understanding Scientific Reasoning
UNDERSTANDING SCIENTIFIC REASONING develops critical reasoning skills and works with students to improve their level of scientific and technological literacy. Giere teaches students how to understand and critically evaluate scientific information they encounter in popular and professional media. With its focus on science, Understanding Scientific Reasoning helps students learn how to examine scientific reports with a reasonable degree of sophistication. Giere explains how to reason through case studies using the same informal logic skills employed by scientists. Students sharpen their abilities to analyze a complex series of propositions and hypotheses in the same manner as scientists.
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Why Understand Scientific Reasoning?
Part One Theoretical Hypotheses
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bacteria bladder cancer breast cancer causal hypothesis cause coffee comets control group Crick decision matrix decision problem developed diagram effect estimate example Exercise exhibit expected value experiment fact fit the real green heart disease Hypothetical population individuals interval interviews large marbles lung cancer margin of error matrix Mendel's model fits NHSLS nonsmokers Not-C observed Oort cloud option oral contraceptives orbit outcomes particular patients percent plants population of interest positive causal factor positive correlation possible prediction probability produce program for evaluating proportion prospective studies PX(E question random sampling randomly rats real world real-world population red marbles relationships relative frequency relevant reported represent roughly Ruth Simmons saccharin sample frequencies sampling distributions scientific reasoning scientists selected shown in Figure smoking statistically significant statistically significant difference Step strategy structure subjects theoretical hypotheses theoretical models theory trials understand variable Watson women