Methods of logic
This widely used textbook of modern formal logic now offers a number of new features. Incorporating updated notations, selective answers to exercises, expanded treatment of natural deduction, and new discussions of predicate- functor logic and the affinities between higher set theory and the elementary logic of terms, Quine's new edition will serve admirably both for classroom and for independent use.
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Negation Conjunction and Alternation
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3x Fx affirmative alternational normal antecedent axioms biconditional Boolean existence Boolean term schemata Cerberus clausal UG clause comes out true component compound conclusion conjunctional normal form consistency decision procedure deduction Diagram dyadic equivalent example EXERCISES existence schemata existential quantifiers F are G false fell swoop free variables functional normal forms functors HISTORICAL NOTE identity implies instantial variable interpretation logic main method means monadic negation normal schema notation objects ordinary language p v q paraphrasing polyadic premises prenex form proof procedure quantificational schemata relettering rules of passage set theory singular terms substitution syllogism term abstracts term letters term schema theorem tion truth functions truth value truth-functional truth-functionally valid truth-value analysis universal quantifiers unquantified instances valid schemata Vjc Fx Vx Fx Vx(Fx