Wastewater Irrigation and Health: Assessing and Mitigating Risk in Low-income Countries
Pay Drechsel, Christopher A. Scott, Liqa Raschid-Sally, Mark Redwood, Akica Bahri
IWMI, 2010 - Political Science - 404 pages
In most developing countries wastewater treatment systems are hardly functioning or have a very low coverage, resulting in large scale water pollution and the use of very poor quality water for crop irrigation especially in the vicinity of urban centres. This can create significant risks to public health, particularly where crops are eaten raw. Wastewater Irrigation and Health approaches this serious problem from a practical and realistic perspective, addressing the issues of health risk assessment and reduction in developing country settings. The book therefore complements other books on the topic of wastewater which focus on high-end treatment options and the use of treated wastewater. This book moves the debate forward by covering also the common reality of untreated wastewater, greywater and excreta use. It presents the state-of-the-art on quantitative risk assessment and low-cost options for health risk reduction, from treatment to on-farm and off-farm measures, in support of the multiple barrier approach of the 2006 guidelines for safe wastewater irrigation published by the World Health Organization. The 38 authors and co-authors are international key experts in the field of wastewater irrigation representing a mix of agronomists, engineers, social scientists and public health experts from Africa, Asia, Europe, North America and Australia. The chapters highlight experiences across the developing world with reference to various case studies from sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, Mexico and the Middle East. The book also addresses options for resource recovery and wastewater governance, thus clearly establishes a connection between agriculture, health and sanitation, which is often the missing link in the current discussion on 'making wastewater an asset'.
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Accra Amoah analysis application approach Asano Ascaris associated bacteria biosolids cent challenge chapter coli coliforms concentrations constructed wetlands consumers consumption contamination cost-effectiveness costs crops Cryptosporidium developing countries diarrhoea disease disinfection dose-response Drechsel economic effective effluent environment Environmental estimated excreta exposure faecal sludge farm farmers food safety Ghana Giardia giardiasis Greywater Guidelines health risks heavy metals helminth eggs human impact improved infection risk interventions irrigation water IWMI Jiménez Keraita Kumasi lettuce levels livelihood log unit Mara marketing measures metalloids microbial risk multi-stakeholder processes non-treatment norovirus nutrients ofwastewater options pathogen pathogen reduction peri-urban phytoremediation polluted ponds post-harvest potential pppy practices production protozoan Qadir QMRA Raschid-Sally reclaimed water removal Research risk assessment rotavirus salinity sanitation Science and Technology soil Source stakeholders strategies studies treated wastewater treatment plants UASB untreated urban agriculture vegetables wastewater irrigation wastewater management wastewater treatment wastewater-irrigated water quality Water Science World Health Organization