Constructed Wetlands in the Sustainable Landscape
Constructed wetlands are gaining worldwide acceptance as effective, low-cost, and low-impact alternatives to unsightly, high-impact wastewater treatment facilities. The creative involvement of today's planners, landscape architects, developers, environmental engineers, and public officials is helping to maximize the potential of these wetland habitats—from their aesthetics to their multiple uses as water treatment plants, wildlife refuges, and recreational or educational facilities. Yet, to date, the literature has paid no attention to these aspects, focusing instead on the technical side of wetlands construction and function.
Constructed Wetlands in the Sustainable Landscape is the first book to integrate aesthetic design and planning issues with the technical aspects of wetlands engineering. Renowned landscape architect Craig S. Campbell and engineer Michael H. Ogden clearly demonstrate how the successful development and management of multifunctional, sustainable wetland habitats depend on harnessing the knowledge and working principles of a number of disciplines. Richly illustrated with real-world case studies, the book:
Covers the concept of sustainable development and the nature of wetland processes.
Discusses designs for new and existing municipal and small community wastewater treatment facilities.
Contains examples of on-site planning for, and management of, stormwater renovation, single-family residential systems, and multiple-use systems.
Examines landscape engineering and planning for ponds, urban wildlife, and ecological art.
Clearly written and accessible to nonengineers and nonscientists, Constructed Wetlands in the Sustainable Landscape is a crucial guide for landscape architects, environmental engineers, planners, developers, and others responsible for the design and management of our built environment.
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The use of recycled water for drinking, however, is less common, largely because many people are repelled by the thought of water that’s been in our toilets going to our taps. But a few countries like Singapore, Australia and Namibia, and states such as California, Virginia and New Mexico are already drinking recycled water, demonstrating that purified wastewater can be safe and clean, and help ease water shortages.
The term “toilet to tap,” used to drum up opposition to drinking recycled water, is misleading because recycled water that ends up in drinking water undergoes extensive and thorough purification. In addition, it is usually added to groundwater or surface water for further cleansing before being sent to a drinking water supply where it is again treated. In fact, it has been shown to have fewer contaminants than existing treated water supplies.
There are a number of technologies used to recycle water, depending on how pure it needs to be and what it will be used for. Here’s how it’s done at the Point Loma Wastewater Treatment plant in San Diego—the city is currently studying the feasibility of recycling water for drinking.
Sewage first goes through advanced primary treatment in which water is separated from large particles, then enters sedimentation tanks where chemicals are used to make primary sludge settle to the bottom and scum rise to the top. Once the water is separated out, 80% of the solids have been removed, and the wastewater is clean enough to be discharged to the ocean. (Though wastewater is a potentially valuable resource, most wastewater produced along our coasts ends up in the ocean.)
In secondary treatment, bacteria are added to the wastewater to ingest organic solids, producing secondary sludge that settles to the bottom.
Tertiary treatment filters the water to remove whatever solids remain, disinfects it with chlorine, and removes the salt. In California, tertiary-treated water is called “recycled water” and can be used for irrigation or industry.
For Indirect Potable Reuse (IPR)—recycled water that eventually becomes drinking water—tertiary-treated water undergoes advanced water technology, then spends time in groundwater or surface water, such as a reservoir, before being sent to drinking water supplies. Advanced water technology first involves microfiltration that strains out any remaining solids.
Reverse osmosis. Photo credit: fhemerick
Next, reverse osmosis, which applies pressure to water on one side of a membrane allowing pure water to pass through, eliminates viruses, bacteria, protozoa, and pharmaceuticals. The water is then disinfected by ultra violet light (UV) or ozone and hydrogen peroxide. Finally it is added to groundwater or surface water reservoirs where it stays for an average of 6 months to be further purified by natural processes. (This is done mainly to assuage public anxiety about drinking recycled water.) Once drawn from the groundwater or reservoir, the recycled water goes through the standard water purification process all drinking water undergoes to meet U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standards.
In fact San Diego is already drinking recycled water because it imports 85% of its water from Northern California and the Colorado River, into which upstream communities like Las Vegas discharge wastewater that is later treated for drinking purposes. Because of recent restrictions on Northern California water and drought on the Colorado River, San Diego, which recycles sewage water for irrigation, invested $11.8 million into an IPR study. The demo project at the North City Water Reclamation Plant will end in 2013. During this time, its Advanced Water Purification Facility is producing 1 million gallons of purified water each day, though no water is being sent to the reservoir.
IPR is more economical for San Diego than recycling more sewage for irrigation would be because recycled irrigation water must be conveyed through special purple pipes to separate it from potable water; expanding the purple pipe infrastructure would
Very helpful for me. I am just starting to work on a design of a wetland. Thank you.
The Concept of Sustainable Development
The Center for Maximum Potential Building Systems
Constructed Wetlands and Permaculture
Bioremediation and Phytoremediation
Public Attitudes and Sustainability
The Nature of Wetland Processes
Septic TanksThe First Step
Constructed Wetlands for the Residential Property
Lusk Residence New Mexico
Fullerton Residence New Mexico
The Problem of Algae and Pond Clarity
Gas and Nutrient Cycling in Ponds
The Nature of Wetlands
Aquatic Plants and Wastewater Renovation
Current Status of Constructed Wetlands
Constructed Wetlands and Wastewater Treatment Design
Capabilities and Limitations of Constructed Wetlands
The Planning Process
Designing for New Facilities
Designing for Existing Facilities
Design for Industrial Mining and Agricultural Applications
Designing for Stormwater Runoff and Combined Sewer Overflows
The Economics of Constructed Wetlands
The Regulatory Process
Design Operation and Maintenance of Constructed Wetlands
Subsurface Flow Wetlands
Surface Flow Wetlands
The Construction Process
Operation and Maintenance Considerations
Stormwater Renovation with Constructed Wetlands
Keystone and Copper Mountain Resorts Colorado
Stormwater Management in Florida and Maryland
Watersheds as Planning Units
Washington State Stormwater Guidelines
King County Metro
Other Examples of Onsite Stormwater Management
Prototype Stormwater Wetland Designs
Some Functional Differences in Stormwater Wetlands
Pollutant Removal Rates for Stormwater Wetlands
Examples of Integrated Stormwater Wetland Systems
SingleFamily Residential Systems
The Case for Onsite Treatment
Pond Water pH
Design of Constructed Ponds
Visibility Accessibility Liability
Wildlife Considerations and Management
Ecologically Based Planning and Wildlife
The Importance of Interpretive Signage
Designing for Wildlife
Art Engineering and the Landscape
Art and the Environment
Nature Art and Constructed Wetlands
Flowforms and Water Quality
Water Issues and Public Perception
Wildlife and Art
The Nature of the Collaborative Effort
Examples of MultipleUse Constructed Wetlands
Stapleton Airport Redevelopment Plan
Arcata Wastewater March and Wildlife Sanctuary
Columbia Wetlands Wastewater Treatment Project
Orlando Easterly Wetlands Reclamation and Park
Sacramento County Demonstration Wetlands
Multiagency Welcome Center
Lost Padillas Elementary School
Binford LakeButler Creek Greenway Master Plan
San Antonio Water System