Fracture of Brittle Solids

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Cambridge University Press, Jun 3, 1993 - Technology & Engineering - 378 pages
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This is an advanced text for higher degree materials science students and researchers concerned with the strength of highly brittle covalent-ionic solids, principally ceramics. It is a reconstructed and greatly expanded edition of a book first published in 1975. The book presents a unified continuum, microstructural and atomistic treatment of modern day fracture mechanics from a materials perspective. Particular attention is directed to the basic elements of bonding and microstructure that govern the intrinsic toughness of ceramics. These elements hold the key to the future of ceramics as high-technology materials--to make brittle solids strong, we must first understand what makes them weak. The underlying theme of the book is the fundamental Griffith energy-balance concept of crack propagation. The early chapters develop fracture mechanics from the traditional continuum perspective, with attention to linear and nonlinear crack-tip fields, equilibrium and non-equilibrium crack states. It then describes the atomic structure of sharp cracks, the topical subject of crack-microstructure interactions in ceramics, with special focus on the concepts of crack-tip shielding and crack-resistance curves, and finally deals with indentation fracture, flaws and structural reliability.
 

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Contents

The Griffith concept
1
11 Stress concentrators
2
equilibrium fracture
5
13 Crack in uniform tension
7
14 Obreimoffs experiment
9
15 Molecular theory of strength
12
16 Griffith flaws
13
17 Further considerations
14
61 Cohesive strength model
144
intrinsic bond rupture
148
63 Computersimulation models
162
concentrated cracktip reactions
165
surface forces and metastable crackinterface states
175
66 Cracktip plasticity
185
direct observations by transmission electron microscopy
188
Microstructure and toughness
194

Continuum aspects of crack propagation I linear elastic cracktip field
16
crack system as thermodynamic cycle
17
22 Mechanicalenergyrelease rate G
20
23 Cracktip field and stressintensity factor K
23
24 Equivalence of G and K parameters
29
25 G and K for specific crack systems
30
incorporation of the Griffith concept
39
27 Crack stability and additivity of Kfields
41
28 Crack paths
44
Continuum aspects of crack propagation II nonlinear cracktip field
51
31 Nonlinearity and irreversibility of cracktip processes
52
32 IrwinOrowan extension of the Griffith concept
56
33 Barenblatt cohesionzone model
59
34 Pathindependent integrals about crack tip
66
35 Equivalence of energybalance and cohesionzone approaches
70
the Rcurve or Tcurve
72
bridged interfaces and frontal zones
80
Unstable crack propagation dynamic fracture
86
41 Mott extension of the Griffith concept
87
42 Running crack in tensile specimen
88
43 Dynamical effects near terminal velocity
93
44 Dynamical loading
99
45 Fractoemission
103
Chemical processes in crack propagation kinetic fracture
106
work of adhesion
108
52 Rice generalisation of the Griffith concept
112
53 Cracktip chemistry and shielding
117
54 Crack velocity data
119
55 Models of kinetic crack propagation
128
56 Evaluation of crack velocity parameters
138
57 Thresholds and hysteresis in crack healingrepropagation
139
Atomic aspects of fracture
143
71 Geometrical crackfront perturbations
195
general considerations
208
dislocation and microcrack clouds
211
phase transformations in zirconia
221
monophase ceramics
230
76 Ceramic composites
242
Indentation fracture
249
blunt and sharp indenters
250
inert strength toughness and Tcurves
263
timedependent strength and fatigue
276
crack initiation
282
strength
293
86 Special applications of the indentation method
296
strength degradation erosion and wear
300
88 Surface forces and contact adhesion
304
Crack initiation flaws
307
91 Crack nucleation at microcontacts
309
92 Crack nucleation at dislocation pileups
314
93 Flaws from chemical thermal and radiant fields
319
94 Processing flaws in ceramics
325
size effects in crack initiation
328
effect of grain size on strength
332
Strength and reliability
335
101 Strength and flaw statistics
337
102 Flaw statistics and lifetime
343
103 Flaw elimination
347
104 Flaw tolerance
350
105 Other design factors
357
References and reading list
363
Index
372
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