## Fracture of Brittle SolidsThis is an advanced text for higher degree materials science students and researchers concerned with the strength of highly brittle covalent-ionic solids, principally ceramics. It is a reconstructed and greatly expanded edition of a book first published in 1975. The book presents a unified continuum, microstructural and atomistic treatment of modern day fracture mechanics from a materials perspective. Particular attention is directed to the basic elements of bonding and microstructure that govern the intrinsic toughness of ceramics. These elements hold the key to the future of ceramics as high-technology materials--to make brittle solids strong, we must first understand what makes them weak. The underlying theme of the book is the fundamental Griffith energy-balance concept of crack propagation. The early chapters develop fracture mechanics from the traditional continuum perspective, with attention to linear and nonlinear crack-tip fields, equilibrium and non-equilibrium crack states. It then describes the atomic structure of sharp cracks, the topical subject of crack-microstructure interactions in ceramics, with special focus on the concepts of crack-tip shielding and crack-resistance curves, and finally deals with indentation fracture, flaws and structural reliability. |

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### Contents

The Griffith concept | 1 |

11 Stress concentrators | 2 |

equilibrium fracture | 5 |

13 Crack in uniform tension | 7 |

14 Obreimoffs experiment | 9 |

15 Molecular theory of strength | 12 |

16 Griffith flaws | 13 |

17 Further considerations | 14 |

61 Cohesive strength model | 144 |

intrinsic bond rupture | 148 |

63 Computersimulation models | 162 |

concentrated cracktip reactions | 165 |

surface forces and metastable crackinterface states | 175 |

66 Cracktip plasticity | 185 |

direct observations by transmission electron microscopy | 188 |

Microstructure and toughness | 194 |

Continuum aspects of crack propagation I linear elastic cracktip field | 16 |

crack system as thermodynamic cycle | 17 |

22 Mechanicalenergyrelease rate G | 20 |

23 Cracktip field and stressintensity factor K | 23 |

24 Equivalence of G and K parameters | 29 |

25 G and K for specific crack systems | 30 |

incorporation of the Griffith concept | 39 |

27 Crack stability and additivity of Kfields | 41 |

28 Crack paths | 44 |

Continuum aspects of crack propagation II nonlinear cracktip field | 51 |

31 Nonlinearity and irreversibility of cracktip processes | 52 |

32 IrwinOrowan extension of the Griffith concept | 56 |

33 Barenblatt cohesionzone model | 59 |

34 Pathindependent integrals about crack tip | 66 |

35 Equivalence of energybalance and cohesionzone approaches | 70 |

the Rcurve or Tcurve | 72 |

bridged interfaces and frontal zones | 80 |

Unstable crack propagation dynamic fracture | 86 |

41 Mott extension of the Griffith concept | 87 |

42 Running crack in tensile specimen | 88 |

43 Dynamical effects near terminal velocity | 93 |

44 Dynamical loading | 99 |

45 Fractoemission | 103 |

Chemical processes in crack propagation kinetic fracture | 106 |

work of adhesion | 108 |

52 Rice generalisation of the Griffith concept | 112 |

53 Cracktip chemistry and shielding | 117 |

54 Crack velocity data | 119 |

55 Models of kinetic crack propagation | 128 |

56 Evaluation of crack velocity parameters | 138 |

57 Thresholds and hysteresis in crack healingrepropagation | 139 |

Atomic aspects of fracture | 143 |

71 Geometrical crackfront perturbations | 195 |

general considerations | 208 |

dislocation and microcrack clouds | 211 |

phase transformations in zirconia | 221 |

monophase ceramics | 230 |

76 Ceramic composites | 242 |

Indentation fracture | 249 |

blunt and sharp indenters | 250 |

inert strength toughness and Tcurves | 263 |

timedependent strength and fatigue | 276 |

crack initiation | 282 |

strength | 293 |

86 Special applications of the indentation method | 296 |

strength degradation erosion and wear | 300 |

88 Surface forces and contact adhesion | 304 |

Crack initiation flaws | 307 |

91 Crack nucleation at microcontacts | 309 |

92 Crack nucleation at dislocation pileups | 314 |

93 Flaws from chemical thermal and radiant fields | 319 |

94 Processing flaws in ceramics | 325 |

size effects in crack initiation | 328 |

effect of grain size on strength | 332 |

Strength and reliability | 335 |

101 Strength and flaw statistics | 337 |

102 Flaw statistics and lifetime | 343 |

103 Flaw elimination | 347 |

104 Flaw tolerance | 350 |

105 Other design factors | 357 |

363 | |

372 | |

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### Common terms and phrases

activated adhesion adsorption alumina analysis applied loading applied stress atomic Barenblatt bond rupture bridging brittle cracks brittle solids ceramics chapter chemical cohesion component condition configuration const continuum corresponding crack extension crack front crack growth crack interface crack plane crack propagation crack system crack velocity crack-tip critical deformation determined dislocation displacement elastic equation equilibrium evaluation failure fibres force fracture mechanics geometry healed Hertzian cone increasing indentation inert strength integral interaction intergranular fracture intrinsic Irwin kinetic lattice Lawn limit linear linear elastic material matrix mechanical-energy-release rate mica microcrack microstructural mode modulus molecules nonlinear parameters particle plot Poisson's ratio pop-in processes radial radius region relation residual stress sect shear shielding zone silicate glass silicon soda-lime glass solid curve solutions specific specimen strain stress field stress-intensity factor structure surface energy tensile stress terminal velocity thermal toughening toughness unstable Width of field Young's modulus

### Popular passages

Page 371 - Crack Stability and Toughness Characteristics in Brittle Materials.