Collection of reports (condensed) and opinions of chemists in regard to the use of lead pipe for service pipe: in the distribution of water for the supply of cities

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Hosford, 1859 - Water-pipes - 343 pages
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Page 181 - ... from the size of a pin's head to that of a pea ; scattered through a large body of sand or clay ; and in this state it is called by the Mandingoes sanoo munko,
Page 303 - A glance at the names of a few of the great organizations instituted in different parts of the world at the close of the last and beginning of the present century...
Page 108 - The first coat (j) is a simple suboxide absolutely insoluble in water, and solutions of salts generally. This becomes converted in some waters into a higher oxide, and this higher oxide, uniting with water and carbonic acid, forms a coat (k) soluble in from 7,000 to 10,000 times its weight of pure water.
Page 108 - ... which is in the highest degree protective. The perfection of this coat, and of the first above mentioned, may be inferred from the small quantity of lead found in Croton water (New York), after an exposure in pipes of from twelve to thirty-six hours, and from the absence of an appreciable quantity in Fairmount water (Philadelphia), after an exposure of thirty-six hours, when concentrated to one two-hundredth of its bulk.
Page 39 - ... one gallon of water, in weight equal to 70,000 grains, taking up no more than 2 grains of carbonate of lime. This earthy impregnation is said to give the water two degrees of hardness. But waters are often found containing a much larger quantity of carbonate of lime, such as 12, 16, or even 20 grains and upwards in the gallon. In such cases the true solvent of the carbonate of lime, or at least of the excess above two grains, is carbonic acid gas, which is found lo some extent in nil natural...
Page 309 - The general result of these experiments appears to be, that neutral salts in various, and for the most part minute, proportions, retard or prevent the corrosive action of water on lead, — allowing the carbonate to deposit itself slowly, and to adhere with such firmness to the lead as not to be afterwards...
Page 107 - ... in the percentage of gases in solution ; recently drawn well-water, in summer particularly, parts with a quantity of air upon exposure to the surface temperature. In winter these relationships must to some extent be inverted, in high latitudes for a longer, and in lower latitudes for a shorter period, (c.) They differ in the percentage of inorganic matter in solution ; well-waters contain more ; — (d.) in the relative proportions of salts in solution ; well-waters contain more nitrates and...
Page 297 - At a marine villa of Lord Aberdeen's, some of the servants suffered in health from lead in water derived from pipes. Sand filters were put up under my direction at this villa, and subsequently at Haddo House. On making inquiry recently...
Page 179 - ... lead pipe for the conveyance of water under any circumstances. Having shown, both by analysis, and its effects on the system, that lead is present in the Cochituate water drawn through lead pipes, also in the Croton water, the New Orleans water, the Cincinnati and Louisville water, he concludes : " That it is never safe to use water drawn through lead pipes, or stored in leaden cisterns, for domestic purposes ; and that any article of food or drink is dangerous to health, which, by any possibility,...
Page 107 - The green plants, so called, and animalcule which evolve oxygen, are abundant in open waters in warm weather only, and of course when the capacity of water to retain air in solution is lowest ; so that, although oxygen is produced in open waters by these microscopic organisms, it does not increase the vigor of their action upon lead.

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