Handbook of Petroleum Processing

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David S. J. Jones, Peter R. Pujadó, Peter P. Pujadó
Springer Science & Business Media, 11 gen 2006 - 1353 pagine
9 Recensioni

This reference work targets researchers who have chosen a career in this complex but essential industry as well as people who are new in the industry and are looking for easy references to the work in which they are involved. This Handbook is an essential addition to the libraries of universities which contain a chemical engineering faculty as well as to the libraries of engineering construction companies, and oil refineries.

This Handbook describes and discusses the features that make up the petroleum refining industry. It begins with a description of the crude oils and their nature. It continues with the saleable products from the refining processes, with a review of the modern day environmental impact.

There is a complete overview of the processes that make up the refinery with a brief history of the processes. It also describes design technique, operation, and, in the case of catalytic units, the chemistry of the reaction routes. These discussions are supported by calculation procedures and examples, sufficient to enable good input to modern computer simulation packages.

The Handbook also covers off-sites and utilities, as well as environmental and safety aspects relevant to the industry.

The chapter on refinery planning covers both operational planning and the decision making procedures for new or revamped processes.

Finally, the major items of equipment used in the industry are reviewed. This chapter gives a detail of the equipment with examples of the process specifications for these items.

The final chapter is in part a glossary and in part a dictionary of the terms and expressions used in Petroleum Refining. This part of the book also includes an appendix section with an item on much used data such as converging factors, selected crude oil assays and an example of optimising a refinery configuration using linear programming.

 

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Indice

An introduction to crude oil and its processing
1
The crude oil assay
6
Other basic definitions and correlations
9
Predicting product qualities
18
Basic processes
27
The processes common to most energy refineries
28
Processes not so common to energy refineries
37
The nonenergy refineries
40
Sizing for flashing liquids
600
Appendix 131 Example calculation for sizing a tank heater
602
Appendix 132 Example calculation for sizing a relief value
606
Appendix 133 Control valve sizing
607
Environmental control and engineering in petroleum refining
611
Pollutants in aqueous waste streams
612
Treating refinery aqueous wastes
616
Oxidation of sulfides to thiosulfates
621

References
45
Petroleum products and a refinery configuration DSJ Jones
47
22 Petroleum products
48
23 A discussion on the motive fuels of gasoline and diesel
63
24 A refinery process configuration development
76
Conclusion
109
The atmospheric and vacuum crude distillation units
111
31 The atmospheric crude distillation unit
112
The development of the material balance for the atmospheric crude distillation unit
115
The design characteristics of an atmospheric crude distillation fractionating tower
119
The fractionator overhead system
122
The side streams and intermediate reflux sections
128
Calculating the main tower dimensions
137
The crude feed preheat exchanger system design
142
An example in the design of an atmospheric crude oil distillation tower
146
32 The vacuum crude distillation unit
169
The vacuum crude distillation units flash zone
171
The tower overhead ejector system
172
Calculating flash zone conditions in a vacuum unit
176
Drawoff temperatures
177
Determine pumparound and internal flows for vacuum towers
178
Calculate tower loading in the packed section of vacuum towers
179
Appendix
183
The distillation of the Light Ends from crude oil
189
Developing the material balance for light end units
191
Calculating the operating conditions in light end towers
196
Calculating the number of trays in light end towers
199
Condenser and reboiler duties
203
Tower loading and sizing
205
Checks for light end tower operation and performance
214
Catalytic reforming
217
Feedstocks
219
Catalysts
227
Process flow schemes
232
Advantages of CCR Platforming
234
Catalysts and suppliers
236
References
237
Fluid catalytic cracking
239
Fluidization
244
Process control
247
Reaction chemistry and mechanisms
248
Gas oil cracking technology features
250
Cracking for light olefins and aromatics
271
Nomenclature
278
References
279
Appendix 61 Commercially available FCC catalysts and additives
282
Distillate hydrocracking
287
Flow schemes
288
Chemistry
292
Catalysts
298
Catalyst manufacturing
300
Catalyst loading and activation
305
Catalyst deactivation and regeneration
306
Design and operation of hydrocracking reactors
308
Hydrocracking process variables
312
Hydrocracker licensors and catalyst manufacturers
319
Hydrotreating
321
Brief history
322
Flow schemes
323
Chemistry
327
Catalysts
334
Catalyst manufacturing
337
Catalyst loading and activation
340
Catalyst deactivation and regeneration
342
Design and operation of hydrotreating reactors
344
Hydrotreating process variables
347
Hydrotreaters licensors and catalyst manufacturers
353
Gasoline components
355
Process chemistry
356
HF alkylation process flow description
360
Sulfuric acid alkylation
364
Stratco effluent refrigerated alkylation process
366
Alkylate properties
370
Conclusions
371
92 Catalytic olefin condensation
372
History
373
Catalytic condensation process for gasoline production
376
Hydrogenated versus nonhydrogenated polymer gasolines from the catalytic condensation process
379
Selective and nonselective gasoline production with the catalytic condensation process
383
Catalytic condensation process as a source of diesel fuels
385
Petrochemical operations
386
Dimersol process
389
Other dimerization or oligomerization processes
391
Recent developments
392
Catalytic olefin condensation with the InAlk process
393
Catalyst suppliers
398
References
399
93 Isomerization technologies for the upgrading of light naphtha and refinery light ends
400
Process chemistry of paraffin isomerization
401
Primary reaction pathways
403
Isomerization catalysts
404
I80 catalyst development and applications
406
LPI100 catalyst development and applications
409
New isomerization process technologies
410
Isomerization process economics
412
Other applications
415
References
416
Refinery gas treating processes
417
Common processes
419
Other gas treating processes
423
Calculating the amine circulation rate
424
Calculating the number of theoretical trays in an amine contactor
425
Calculating absorber tray size and design
428
The stripper design and performance
429
Removing degradation impurities from MEA
430
Appendix 101 The process design of an amine gas treating unit
431
Upgrading the Bottom of the Barrel
447
The thermal cracking processes
448
Deep oil fluid catalytic cracking
458
Residuum hydrocracking
469
Conclusion
472
Appendix 111 Sizing a thermal cracker heaterreactor
473
The nonenergy refineries
483
Lube oil properties
486
A description of major processes in lube oil refining
487
122 Asphalt production
494
123 The petrochemical refinery
508
Process discussion
511
Sizing a bitumen oxidizer
512
Support systems common to most refineries
521
Definitions
522
Reflux drums
523
The control valve
528
132 Offsite systems
533
Atmospheric storage
534
Pressure storage
536
Heated storage tanks
537
Calculating heat loss and heater size for a tank
538
Product blending facilities
542
Road and rail loading facilities
545
Jetty and dock facilities
549
Waste disposal facilities
552
The flare
559
Effluent water treating facilities
565
Other treating processes
567
Utility Systems
568
Brief descriptions of typical utility systems
569
Figure 1327 is a schematic flow diagram of a typical steam generation unit Fuel systems
570
Water systems
575
The hot lime process
581
Compressed air system
585
133 Safety systems
587
Definitions
588
Types of pressure relief valves
591
Capacity
593
Sizing of required orifice areas
595
Oxidation of mercaptans
623
Oxidation of sulfide to sulfate
624
The API oilwater separator
625
Storm surge ponds
628
Other refinery water effluent treatment processes
629
Reference
630
142 Emission to the atmosphere
631
The major effects of air pollution and the most common pollutants
634
Monitoring atmospheric emission
639
Reducing and controlling the atmospheric pollution in refinery products
640
Controlling emission pollution from the refining processes
643
143 Noise pollution
646
Fundamentals of acoustics and noise control
647
Coping with noise in the design phase
652
A typical communityinplant noise program
653
Appendix 141 Partial pressures of H2S and NH3 over aqueous solutions of H2 Sand NH3
657
Appendix 142 Example of the design of a sour water stripper with no reflux
667
Appendix 143 Example design of an API separator
672
Refinery safety measures and handling of hazardous materials
675
The amines used in gas treating
681
Caustic soda
683
Furfural
687
Hydrogen sulfide H2S
690
Methyl ethyl ketone MEK
693
152 Fire prevention and fire fighting
696
Fire prevention with respect to equipment design and operation
697
The fire main
701
Class B fire foams
703
Class A fire foams
704
Quality control of products in petroleum refining
705
161 Specifications for some common finished products
706
The kerosenes
708
The gas oils
710
The fuel oil products
712
The lube oils
713
Petroleum coke
714
Sulfur
715
ASTM distillations D86D156
716
Flash point test method D93
718
Kinematic viscosity D446
721
Reid vapor pressure D323
723
Weathering test for the volatility of LPG D1837
724
Smoke point of kerosenes and aviation turbine fuels D1322
726
Conradson carbon residue of petroleum products D189
731
Bromine number of petroleum distillates D1159
733
Sulfur content by lamp method D1266
734
Octane number research and motor
736
Conclusion
737
EconomicsRefinery planning economics and handling new projects
739
Running plans
740
Developing the running plan
743
Background
745
Basis for assessing requirements
746
The results
747
The refinery operating program
748
1712 Process evaluation and economic analysis
752
Building process configurations and the screening study
756
Example calculation
758
Investment costs for the new facilities
762
Preparing more accurate cost data
767
Summary data sheets
771
Capital cost estimates
775
Discounted cash flow and economic analysis
784
Results
793
Using linear programs to optimize process configurations
794
Executing an approved project
799
The project team
806
Primary activities of the project team
807
Developing the operating manual and plant commissioning
822
Process guarantees and the guarantee test run
830
1711 Refinery plan inadequacies report
836
1712 Crude oil inventory schedule
837
1713 Product inventory and schedule
838
1714 Outline operating schedule
839
1715 Detailed operating program and schedule
840
1716 Typical weekly program
841
1717 Typical factors used in capacity factored estimates
842
1719 An example of a process guarantee
844
Economic analysis
851
Analysis at one point in time
852
Cost of production
859
Reporting parameters
864
APPENDIX 1721 Background for economic calculations
869
APPENDIX 1722 Progressions
873
APPENDIX 1723 Loan repayments mortgage formula
874
APPENDIX 1724
875
Process equipment in petroleum refining
877
Fractionators trays and packings
878
Drums and drum design
908
Specifying pressure vessels
914
182 Pumps
924
Pump selection
928
Selection characteristics
929
Evaluating pump performance
934
Specifying a centrifugal pump
936
The mechanical specification
937
The process specification
938
Centrifugal pump seals
943
Pump drivers and utilities
946
Reacceleration requirement
949
The principle of the turbine driver
950
The performance of the steam turbine
951
183 Compressors
954
Calculating horsepower of centrifugal compressors
956
Centrifugal compressor surge control performance curves and seals
963
Specifying a centrifugal compressor
968
Calculating reciprocating compressor horsepower
975
Reciprocating compressor controls and intercooling
979
Specifying a reciprocating compressor
982
Compressor drivers utilities and ancillary equipment
990
184 Heat exchangers
999
General design considerations
1002
Choice of tube side versus shell side
1005
Estimating shell and tube surface area and pressure drop
1006
Air coolers and condensers
1016
Condensers
1025
Reboilers
1029
185 Fired Heaters
1040
Codes and standards
1043
Thermal rating
1045
Heater efficiency
1047
Burners
1051
Refractories stacks and stack emissions
1053
Specifying a fired heater
1058
181 LMTD correction factors
1066
182 Heat of combustion
1067
183 Heat of combustion of fuel gasses
1068
184 Values for coefficient C
1069
185 Some common heat transfer coefficients
1070
A dictionary of terms and expressions
1071
Examples of working flow sheets
1285
General data
1290
B1 Friction loss for viscous liquids
1291
B2 Resistance of valves and fittings
1300
B3 Viscosity versus temperature
1301
B4 Specific gravity versus temperature
1302
B5 Relationship between specific gravity and API degrees
1303
B6 Flow pressure drop for gas streams
1305
B7 Relationship of chords diameters and areas
1307
A selection of crude oil assays
1308
Conversion factors
1330
An example of an exercise using linear programming
1332
Linear programming aids decisions on refinery configurations
1333
Alphabetic Index
1349
Copyright

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Informazioni sull'autore (2006)

The editor S.Jones is a retired chemical engineer having spent 10 years in BP's Refinery, 4 years in BP Research and Development, 2 years in Esso's Refinery Development Dept, 18 years in Process Engineering with Fluor Corporation (Final position general manager-operations), 8 years as private engineering consultant in SA. Retired in 1992.

The assistant editor P.R.Pujado was the Assistant Lecturer at the University of Manchester, Institute of Science and Technology, 1971-1972; Development Engineer (SA Cros), 1972-1975; Process Coordinator-Aromatics (UOP LLC), 1975-1980; Manager, Marketing Services-Petrochemicals (UOP LLC), 1980-1990; R&D Fellow-Olefins production and processing (UOP LLC), 1990-present.

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