Biological Tolerance to Air Blast and Related Biomedical Criteria
Lovelace Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 1965 - Fallout shelters - 239 pages
Experience with animals exposed in a variety of above and below ground structures during full-scale field operations at the Nevada Test Site in 1953, 1955 and 1957 were reviewed. The data were assembled and summarized to illustrate the nature of the blast-induced problems of significance in protective shelters, "open" as well as "closed". Potential hazards were related to the following: various patterns of variation in environmental pressure; translational events associated with transient, high-velocity winds, ground shock and gravity involving the impact of energized inanimate objects on the one hand the the consequences of whole-body displacement on the other; non-line-of-site thermal phenomena including hot objects and rapidly moving hot, dust- laden air and debris; and dust, in the respirable size range, sufficiently high in concentration even in "closed" shelters as to warrant design measures to minimize or eliminate the occurrence of small particulates whether arising from wall spalling or otherwise. Tentative biological criteria, conceived to help assess human hazards from blast-related phenomena, were presented. Relevant data from the literature and on- going research in environmental medicine were set forth to aid the reader in appreciating how the criteria were formulated, what information was extrapolated from animal data, and wherein "best estimates" were employed. "State-of-the-art" concepts were noted to emphasize areas in which more thinking and research must continue if more refined, complete and adequate criteria are to be forthcoming for assessing man's response to blast-induced variation in his immediate environment.
What people are saying - Write a review
We haven't found any reviews in the usual places.
acceleration animals arrival associated Average basement exit biological blast body cage ceiling cent closed concrete criteria curves designation displacement Distance dogs door duration dust eardrums eardrums ruptured effects estimate Experiment exposed exposure fast-fill floor fracture ft per second ft/sec function gauge ground group shelter guinea hazards head human impact impact velocity incident included increase indicated initial injury inside internal involved lesions lethality located lung hemorrhage material maximum mice missiles mortality motion msec noted occurred overpressures particles pathology peak pigs plate portions position postshot predicted pressure Pressure-time probable produce protective pulse range recorded References reflected Report Richmond rise ruptured Series severe shock shot shown in Figure shows side significant singeing Slight slow-fill standing structure summarized surface Table temperature Test Threshold tolerance translational trays wall wave weight winds