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absolute according activity Adam Smith analysis answer Aristotle asceticism assertion benevolence Butler called categorical imperative character conception Conscience consciousness criticism Cudworth difficulties doctrine duty Egoism elements emotional essence ethical system evil evolution existence experience explain external faculty feeling Fichte happiness Hartmann hedonism hedonistic paradox Hegel Herbert Spencer Hobbes human Hutcheson ideas of Reason individual instance instinctive intellectual intelligence interpretation J. S. Mill James Mill Kant knowledge law of obligation logical man's means metaphysical Mill mind moral action moral ideal moral law moral obligation moral order Moral Philosophy moral sense moralists motive nature ness notion Noumenon object ourselves pain Pessimism Plato pleasure position principle priori psychological purely question rational Rationalist reality reconstruction relation sanction Schopenhauer Science of Ethics scientific self-love selfish sentiment social Spencer sphere stage subjective idealism supposition theory things thought tion ultimate Unconscious universal Utilitarianism virtue
Page 141 - the doing good to mankind, in obedience to the will of God, and for the sake of everlasting happiness.
Page 143 - ... we shall do. On the one hand the standard of right and wrong, on the other the chain of causes and effects, are fastened to their throne. They govern us in all we do, in all we say, in all we think; every effort we can make to throw off our subjection will serve but to demonstrate and confirm it. In words a man may pretend to abjure their empire; but in reality he will remain subject to it all the while.
Page 16 - Man knoweth not the price thereof; Neither is it found in the land of the living. The depth saith, It is not in me : And the sea saith, It is not with me.
Page 106 - There are two ways in which the subject of morals may be treated. One begins from inquiring into the abstract relations of things: the other from a matter of fact, namely, what the particular nature of man is, its several parts, their economy or constitution ; from whence it proceeds to determine what course of life it is, which is correspondent to this whole nature.
Page 107 - I. By nature is often meant no more than some principle in man, without regard either to the kind or degree of it. Thus the passion of anger, and the affection of parents to their children, would be called equally natural. And as the same person hath often contrary principles, which at the same time draw contrary ways, he may by the same action both follow and contradict his nature in this sense of the word; he may follow one passion and contradict another.
Page 241 - Ethics becomes nothing else than a definite account of the forms of conduct that are fitted to the associated state, in such wise that the lives of each and all may be the greatest possible, alike in length and breadth.
Page 143 - Nature has placed mankind under the governance of two sovereign masters, pain and pleasure. It is for them alone to point out what we ought to do, as well as to determine what we shall do.
Page 238 - And there has followed the corollary that conduct gains ethical sanction in proportion as the activities, becoming less and less militant and more and more industrial, are such as do not necessitate mutual injury or hindrance, but consist with, and are furthered by, co-operation and mutual aid.
Page 235 - So that no school can avoid taking for the ultimate moral aim a desirable state of feeling called by whatever name — gratification, enjoyment, happiness. Pleasure somewhere, at some time, to some being or beings, is an inexpugnable element of the conception. It is .as much a necessary form of moral intuition as space is a necessary form of intellectual intuition.
Page 236 - I conceive it to be the business of Moral Science to deduce, from the laws of life and the conditions of existence, what kinds of action necessarily tend to produce happiness, and what kinds to produce unhappiness. Having done this, its deductions are to be recognized as laws of conduct ; and are to be conformed to irrespective of a direct estimation of happiness or misery.