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INTRODUCTION AND PRELIMINARIES page
IMAGE FORMATION BY THIN SYSTEMS
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Airy discs angle of incidence angle subtended aperture astigmatism axial object point axial point axis camera centred system chapter chromatic aberration coma components conjugate planes conjugate points considered corresponding crystalline lens curvature deduced depth of focus deviation diameter diaphragm distant object emergent ray entrance pupil equation exit pupil eye pupil eyepiece field stop focal length focused Galilean Hence illumination image formation image formed image plane image point incident ray instrument iris light longitudinal magnifying power microscope nodal numerical aperture object and image object distance object plane optical systems parallel beam paraxial rays pencil Petzval positions principal points principal ray prism produced radius Ramsden circle Ramsden eyepiece ratio ray directed real image refractive index respectively sagittal second focal length second focal plane second focal point second principal plane seen semi-angular field similar single surface spherical aberration spherical surface tangential thin lenses transmitted transverse magnification triangles wavelengths zone