Mongols and Mamluks: The Mamluk-Ilkhanid War, 1260-1281
For sixty years, from 1260 to 1323, the Mamluk state in Egypt and Syria was at war with the Ilkhanid Mongols based in Persia. This is the first comprehensive study of the political and military aspects of the early years of the war, from the battle of 'Ayn Jalut in 1260 to the battle of Homs in 1281. In between these campaigns, the Mamluk-Ilkhanid struggle was continued in the manner of a 'cold war' with both sides involved in border skirmishes, diplomatic manoeuvres, and espionage. Here, as in the major battles, the Mamluks usually maintained the upper hand, establishing themselves as the foremost Muslim power at the time. By drawing on previously untapped Persian and Arabic sources, the author sheds new light on the confrontation, examining the war within the context of Mongol/Mamluk relations with the Byzantine Empire, the Latin West and the Crusading states.
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1 The historical background
2 The battle of cAyn Jalut
3 The formulation of antiIlkhanid policy
4 The search for a second front
5 Military and diplomatic skirmishing
6 The secret war
7 Baybarss intervention in Seljuq Rum
the second battle of Horns 6801281
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Abagha Abulustayn al-Bira al-Nasir Yusuf Aleppo Alizadah amirs Amitai-Preiss Arabic Armenian arrived Ayalon Ayn Jalut Ayni Ayyubid Baghdad Bar Hebraeus battle of Homs Baybars Baybars al-Mansuri Baybars’s bedouin Berke Berke’s Cahen Cairo Caliph campaign Chinggis Khan cited conﬂict Crusades Damascus defeat Dhahabi Egypt enemy envoys Euphrates evidence Fadl ﬁghting ﬁgure ﬁrst ﬂed Frankish Golden Horde Hama Het‘um Hiilegii horses Ibn Abd al-Zahir Ibn al-‘Amid Ibn al-Dawadari Ibn al-Furat Ibn Kathir Ibn Shaddad Ibn Wasil Ilkhan Ilkhanid Iran Iraq Islamic Ketbugha Khan Kutubi Lesser Armenia letter Mamluk Mamluk army Mamluk sources Mamluk Sultanate Maqrizi mentioned military Mongke Mongol army Mongol commander Mongol force Mongol raid Mufaddal Muhanna Muslim northern Syria Nuwayri oﬂicers oﬂicial Pervane princes Qalawun Qirtay qussad Qutuz Rashid al-Din Rawd ruler Samaghar Seljuq sent Shaﬁ Shama Sunqur Syria Thorau Tiirkmen troops Vatican Vienna Wassaf writes Yasa Yﬁnini Yunini Zubda