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INTRODUCTION 1 Why Study Engineering Surveys?
Uses of Surveys
Factors Controlling Surveys
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adjustment aerial altitude azimuth backsight bearing bubble tube camera celestial circle clinometer Coast and Geodetic compass computed contour corners cross-hair declination determined difference in elevation dumpy level engineers Ephemeris example eyepiece field notes foot footscrews formula Geodetic Survey graduations ground horizontal angle horizontal distance hour angle inch instrument intersection interval Keuffel and Esser latitude lens line of sight magnetic magnetic bearing magnetic declination mean measured ment meridian method miles necessary needle readings objective lens observation obtained parallax photograph plane table plate bubbles plotted plumb bob Polaris position precise procedure pull rear tapeman recorded refraction right ascension rod reading sag correction scale screws set-up shown in Fig sketch slope stadia stake standard station steel tape stereoscopic surface surveyor tangent taping pins telescope bubble temperature tion topographic transit traverse triangulation true length usually vernier vertical angle zero