Neighborhood and Ancestry: Variation in the Spoken Arabic of Maiduguri, Nigeria
Over the past 35 years urban sociolinguistics has developed upon the base of detailed case studies carried out mainly in western countries. A fundamental dichotomy informing the interpretation of variation has been carried out within what is termed the standard-vernacular model . Higher vs. lower social class, power vs. solidarity, open networks vs. closed networks are a few of the conceptual dyads which have been invoked to order linguistic variation operating with an input from a standard/vernacular source. The present study, based on the spoken Arabic of Maiduguri, Nigeria, focuses on a linguistic landscape where the notions of standard and vernacular are of little relevance in ordering urban linguistic variants. It is argued that linguistic variation is best conceptualized and ordered in terms of the twin variables of neighborhood and ancestral norms. A detailed analysis of 13 linguistic variables based on a corpus of about 500,000 words invokes an urban linguistic world different from that in the West. To integrate this landscape into current sociolinguistic thinking a typology of urban variation is outlined using familar, yet relatively unutilized sociolinguistic parameters: neighborhood, ancestry, minority status and institutionalization.
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CHAPTER 1 Introduction
CHAPTER 2 The Peculiar Unity of Nigerian Arabic
CHAPTER 3 The Linguistic Variables
CHAPTER 4 The Comparative Dialectology of the 13 Linguistic Variables
CHAPTER 5 Rural Nigerian Arabic
CHAPTER 6 Maiduguri and the Basic Sample
towards a characterization of neoancestral norms
CHAPTER 8 NonCorpus Data
CHAPTER 9 Variation and Language Attitudes
CHAPTER 10 Linguistic Variation and SocioPolitics
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actors amma ancestral area ancestry Andagomi aniina arabi Arabic in Maiduguri Bagirmi Balge Bama Borno Bulama Cameroon cattle Chadian Chadian Arabic chapter clan contexts contrast correlations cvcvc deda dedda dialect area Dikwa discussion dugut eastern epenthesis example forms gaal Gamboru Gulumba Gwange Gwange mosque group halaas hana hassa Hassaniya Hausa household humma i_3fpl i_3msg i_AP i_modal i_prefl i_raise i_stress i_we interview isoglosses kalaam Kanuri Kirenawa kula kulla Lake Chad language lexemes lexical linguistic linguistic variables Mada Mafa Maiduguri Arabic Maiduguri speakers majority variant naadum naas Ndjamena Ngala Nigerian Arabic nomadic norm Note object suffix occurs paradigms plural preformative vowel present relatively residence residential rural areas Ruwan Zafi sample significant differences sociolinguistic speak statistics stem stress sub-compound Sudanic summarized Table target tokens urban varieties of Arabic variety verb village western xalaas yaani younger speakers