Indo-European Linguistics: An Introduction
The Indo-European language family consists of many of the modern and ancient languages of Europe, India and Central Asia, including Latin, Greek, Sanskrit, Russian, German, French, Spanish and English. Spoken by an estimated three billion people, it has the largest number of native speakers in the world today. This textbook provides an accessible introduction to the study of the Indo-European languages. It clearly sets out the methods for relating the languages to one another, presents an engaging discussion of the current debates and controversies concerning their classification, and offers sample problems and suggestions for how to solve them. Complete with a comprehensive glossary, almost 100 tables in which language data and examples are clearly laid out, suggestions for further reading, discussion points, and a range of exercises, this text will be an essential toolkit for all those studying historical linguistics, language typology and the Indo-European languages for the first time.
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Table 26 Frequency of reconstructed phonemes in PIE roots in
Old Church Old
Sanskrit Greek Latin
5 Verbal morphology
7 Lexicon and lexical semantics
Baltic Tocharian Albanian
relations by blood
relations by marriage
4 Nominal morphology
peku moveable property
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ablaut accusative active & middle afﬁx Albanian Anatolian languages aorist Armenian attested Avestan branches of IE Celtic cognate comparative conjugation consonants daughter languages declension derived difﬁcult e-grade early IE languages enclitics English example explain feminine ﬁeld ﬁnal ﬁnd ﬁrst person formations forms gender genitive Germanic Gothic Greek and Indo-Iranian Greek and Sanskrit Hittite husband’s i-motion Indo-Europeanists inﬂectional language family laryngeal theory laryngeals Latin left-detached lexemes lexical linguistic Lithuanian Luwian Lycian marker meaning medio-passive middle endings morphological Nostratic Old Church Slavonic Old High German Old Irish original paradigm parent language particle person singular phonemes phonological PIE root PIE verb plural possible present and aorist pronoun recon reconstructed for PIE reconstructed PIE reﬂect reﬂexes relative clauses s/he scholars semantic sentence Slavic speciﬁc stative sub-group subjunctive sufﬁx syntactic syntax tense thematic vowel theory third person Tocharian Umbrian Vedic Sanskrit velar verbal system voiced voiceless word zero-grade
Page 2 - The Sanscrit language, whatever be its antiquity, is of a wonderful structure; more perfect than the Greek, more copious than the Latin, and more exquisitely refined than either; yet bearing to both of them a stronger affinity, both in the roots of verbs, and in the forms of grammar, than could possibly have been produced by accident; so strong, indeed, that no philologer could examine them all three without believing them to have sprung from some common source, which, perhaps, no longer exists.