An essay on the formation of harbours of refuge, and the improvement of the navigation of rivers and sea ports, by the adoption of moored floating constructions as breakwaters

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Page 12 - These, which were to extend all the way between the two moles, were covered over with earth and fascines, that the soldiers might pass and repass with ease, and have firm footing to defend them. The front and sides were armed with a parapet of hurdles; and every fourth float had a tower of two stories, the better to keep the enemy's ships at a distance, and to guard the work from fire and the shocks of vessels.
Page 59 - Bridge, and the impetuous outfall of the water in the recess of a spring tide had forced its way through the sands in the beginning of August, 1830. With a view to this event, the old channel of the river Nene had been boldly dammed across in the middle of July, and the current turned into the straight cut prepared for it. All this constitutes the Nene Outfall.
Page 13 - ... one upon the other, are fixed by their own weight, gradually accumulating in the manner, as it were, of a natural mound.
Page 58 - ... mile. On the same principle, if a drainage outlet, obstructed by what may be almost deemed the caprice of winds and tides and of accumulated sand-banks, in consequence shall double its length and creep through a dubious crooked channel, it is evident that a three- or four-inch fall may become an inch, which is ineffectual.
Page 13 - In the construction of this wonderful instance of art, stones of a most enormous size are transported hither- in a large sort of pontoons, and being "piled one upon the other, are fixed by their own weight, and gradually accumulating in the manner of a natural mound.
Page xi - Gulf, insomuch that it is everywhere impassable by a ford; for it spreads not out in breadth so as to diminish its depth, the lands on both sides being much higher than the water, and it is not dispersed through other channels nor conveyed into other rivers, but takes them into itself.
Page 18 - ... tiers in a vertical position, for the purpose of breaking the waves more completely in places where the water is violently agitated. The advantages of this breakwater have been actually experienced at Deal, and certified by some respectable persons of that place. The inventor recommends it particularly for fishing coasts, where the surge often prevents boats from putting off and landing ; and also for bathing places, where it will always produce smooth water, and protect the machines.
Page xii - ... and up the Tigris, to his camp, where Hephaestion, with the forces under his command, waited his arrival. Thence steering his course to Opis, a city on that river, he commanded all the wears, and other impediments which he met with, to be pulled up, and the channel to be cleared. These wears were put down by the Persians, who were unskilled in maritime affairs, to render the navigation of that river so difficult, as to hinder any enemy's fleet from invading them that way. However, Alexander looked...
Page xi - Eulseus to the sea ; and when he was now not far from the mouth thereof, leaving there those ships which were shattered and out of order, he, with the best of them, sailed out to the ocean, and then entered the mouth of the river Tigris, the rest of the fleet passing through a canal drawn from thence to the Tigris ; for, of the two rivers, Tigris and Euphrates, which enclose Assyria and give it the name of Mesopotamia, the channel of the Tigris, lying much lower, receives...
Page 13 - ... gradually accumulating in the manner of a natural mound. It already lifts its rocky back above the ocean, while the waves which beat upon it, being tossed to an immense height, foam with a prodigious noise, and whiten all the sea around. To these stones are added large blocks, which, when the whole shall be completed, will give it the appearance of an island just emerged from the ocean ! This haven is to be called by the name of its great founder*, and will prove of infinite benefit, by affording...

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