Laws of the Game: How the Principles of Nature Govern Chance
Using game theory and examples of actual games people play, Nobel laureate Manfred Eigen and Ruthild Winkler show how the elements of chance and rules underlie all that happens in the universe, from genetic behavior through economic growth to the composition of music. To illustrate their argument, the authors turn to classic games - backgammon, bridge, and chess - and relate them to physical, biological, and social applications of probability theory and number theory. Further, they have invented, and present here, more than a dozen playable games derived from scientific models for equilibrium, selection, growth, and even the composition of RNA. These games, complete with instructions and boards in color, are a source of learning and entertainment.
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antibodies atomic autocatalytic average basic bead games behavior birth cells chain chance chemical color combinations complex constant course death rate defined developed dice dissipative dissipative structures distribution doubling Ehrenfest empty square energy entropy enzyme equal equilibrium evolution example experiment exponential exponential growth Figure forces function game theory gene genetic human hyperbolic growth hypercycle illustration individual interactions Jacques Monod kind knowledge language large number law of growth limited M. C. Escher Manfred Eigen means mechanism molecular molecules mutation nucleic acids number of beads number of possible occur organisms pairs Parcheesi particles pattern physicists physics player playing board population principle probability problem produce protein quantity Random Walk reaction represents reproduction restriction enzyme result roll the dice rules self-organization sequence spatial specific stability statistical structure symbols symmetry thermodynamics tion transformation twelve-tone technique Version white beads words