Pakistan: A Country Study

Front Cover
Peter R. Blood
DIANE Publishing, 1996 - 398 pages
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Describes and analyzes Pakistan's political, economic, social, and national security systems and institutions. Examines the interrelationships of those systems and the ways they are shaped by cultural factors. Contents: historical setting; the society and the environment; the economy (finance, labor, agriculture, industry); government and politics (constitutional and political inheritance, early political development, political dynamics); national security (evolving security dilemma, the armed services; internal security). Extensive bibliography. Glossary. Index.
 

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Contents

Beginnings of SelfGovernment
24
The Two Nations Theory
28
Toward Partition
30
Independent Pakistan
33
Constitutional Beginnings
37
Early Foreign Policy
43
The Ayub Khan Era
44
Basic Democracies
47
The 1962 Constitution
49
Ayub Khans Foreign Policy and the 1965 War with India
50
Yahya Khan and Bangladesh
54
Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto and a New Constitutional System
58
Zia ulHaq and Military Domination 197788
63
Pakistan and the World During the Zia Regime
69
Chapter 2 The Society and Its Environment
75
Physical Environment
79
Topography and Drainage
82
Climate
87
Pollution and Environmental Issues
88
National Conservation Goals
90
Population
91
Population Distribution and Density
92
Migration and Growth of Major Cities
95
Impact of Migration to the Persian Gulf Countries
97
Repercussions of the War in Afghanistan
98
Social Structure
100
Linguistic and Ethnic Groups
103
Men Women and the Division of Space
118
The Status of Women and the Womens Movement
120
Religious Life
124
Basic Tenets of Islam
125
Islam in Pakistani Society
127
Politicized Islam
128
NonMuslim Minorities
130
Education
131
Structure of the System
132
Female Education
133
Reform Efforts
134
Health and Welfare
135
Maternal and Child Health
136
Health Care Policies and Developments
137
Smoking Drugs and AIDS
139
Zakat as a Welfare System
141
Prospects for Social Cohesion
142
Chapter 3 The Economy
147
Structure of the Economy
150
The Role of Government
152
Development Planning
158
Finance
160
Fiscal Administration
161
Foreign Economic Relations
165
Foreign Trade
166
External Debt
168
Labor
170
Agriculture
172
Irrigation
173
Drainage
176
Farm Ownership and Land Reform
177
Cropping Patterns and Production
179
Livestock
181
Fishing
182
Manufacturing
183
Construction
184
Ayub Khan 195869
204
Yahya Khan 196971
206
Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto 197177
207
Constitution and Government Structure
210
Provincial Governments
213
Political Dynamics
214
Muslim League
215
Islami Jamhoori Ittehad
216
JamaatiIslami
217
Pakistan Peoples Party
218
Muhajir Qaumi Mahaz
221
Awami National Party
222
TehrikiIstiqlal
223
The Caretaker Government of Ghulam Mustafa Jatoi
227
The Government of Nawaz Sharif
229
President Ghulam Ishaq Khan as Power Broker
235
A Year of Political Struggle
236
The Caretaker Government of Moeen Qureshi
237
Benazir Bhutto Returns
238
The Media
241
Foreign Policy
243
India
244
Other South Asian Countries
246
The Former Soviet Union
248
Middle East
249
The United States and the West
250
International Organizations
253
Chapter 5 National Security
255
A Historical Perspective
257
The Formation of Pakistan
260
Pakistans Evolving Security Dilemma
263
The United States Alliance
264
The Army Assumes Control
267
Collapse of Pakistans Security System
268
The IndoPakistani War of 1965
269
The Military Reasserts Itself
274
Pakistan Becomes a Frontline State
276
The Armed Forces in a New World Order
280
The Armed Services
285
Defense Strategy
286
Ministry of Defence
287
Army and Paramilitary Forces
288
Navy
290
Air Force
291
Personnel and Training
292
Uniforms Ranks and Insignia
295
Budget
299
Foreign Security Relationships
300
The Role of Islam
302
Internal Security
304
Character of the Security Forces
306
Crime
308
Courts and Criminal Procedure
309
Prisons
310
Islamic Provisions
311
Emergency Provisions
313
Subversion and Civil Unrest
314
Appendix
319
Bibliography
333
Glossary
363
Index
367
Contributors
395
Copyright

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Page 130 - ... .Now, I think, we should keep that in front of us as our ideal and you will find that in the course of time Hindus would cease to be Hindus and Muslims would cease to be Muslims, not in the religious sense, because that is the personal faith of each individual, but in the political sense as citizens of the state".
Page 25 - The policy of His Majesty's Government, with -which the Government of India are in complete accord, is that of the increasing association of Indians in every branch of the administration and the gradual development of self-governing institutions with a view to the progressive realization of responsible government in India as an integral part of the British Empire.
Page iii - ... historical antecedents and on the cultural, political, and socioeconomic characteristics that contribute to cohesion and cleavage within the society. Particular attention is given to the origins and traditions of the people who make up the society, their dominant beliefs and values, their community of interests and the issues on which they are divided, the nature and extent...
Page 206 - Wherein the principles of democracy, freedom, equality, tolerance and social justice as enunciated by Islam, should be fully observed; Wherein the Muslims of Pakistan should be enabled individually and collectively to order their lives in accordance with the teachings and requirements of Islam, as set out in the Holy Quran and Sunnah...
Page iii - Each study is written by a multidisciplinary team of social scientists. The authors seek to provide a basic understanding of the observed society, striving for a dynamic rather than a static portrayal. Particular attention is devoted to the people who make up the society, their origins, dominant beliefs and values, their common interests and the issues on which they are divided, the nature and extent of their involvement with national institutions, and their attitudes toward each other and toward...
Page 367 - Informal name used to designate a group of four affiliated international institutions: the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), the International Development Association (IDA), the International Finance Corporation (IFC), and the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA). The...
Page 368 - IDA, a legally separate loan fund but administered by the staff of the IBRD, was set up in 1960 to furnish credits to the poorest developing countries on much easier terms than those of conventional IBRD loans. The IFC, founded in 1956, supplements the activities of the IBRD through loans and assistance designed specifically to encourage the growth of productive private enterprises in the less developed countries.
Page 366 - International Monetary Fund (IMF) — Established along with the World Bank (qv} in 1945, the IMF is a specialized agency affiliated with the United Nations and is responsible for stabilizing international exchange rates and payments. The main business of the IMF is the provision of loans to its members (including industrialized and developing countries) when they experience balance of payments difficulties.
Page 123 - I wish to impress on you is that no nation can rise to the height of glory unless your women are side by side with you. We are victims of evil customs. It is a crime against humanity that our women are shut up within the four walls of the houses as prisoners.
Page 309 - These restrictions were documented in detail in the United States Department of State's Country Reports on Human Rights Practices and the statistics of Al Haq (Law in the Service of Man), a RamAllah-based human rights organization.

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