The Transforming Power of the Nuns: Women, Religion, and Cultural Change in Ireland, 1750-1900
Mary Peckham Magray argues that the Irish Catholic cultural revolution in the nineteenth century was effected not only by male elites, as previous scholarship has claimed, but also by the most overlooked and underestimated women in Ireland: the nuns. Once thought to be merely passive servants of the male clerical hierarchy, women's religious orders were in fact at the very center of the creation of a devout Catholic culture in Ireland. Often well-educated, articulate, and evangelical, nuns were much more social and ambitious than traditional stereotypical views have held. They used their wealth and their authority to effect changes in both the religious practices and daily activity of the larger Irish Catholic population, and by doing so, Magray argues, deserve a far larger place in the Irish historical record than they have previously been accorded. Magray's innovative work challenges some of the most widely held assumptions of social history in nineteenth-century Ireland. It will be of interest to scholars and students of Irish history, religious history, women's studies, and sociology.
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HISTORY OF MAGRAY TRIBE
TWO BOOKS “MAGRAY THE MARTIALS AND WARRIORS OF KASHMIR”AND “MAGRAY IN THE EYES OF HISTORY”HAVE BEEN WRITTEN BY SAJJAD LATIF MAGRAY .LAUNCHING CEREMONY OFTHESE BOOKS WAS HELD ON 1st FEB 08 AT PRESS CLUB RAWALPINDI AND WAS ATTENDED BY THE PRIME MINISTER OF AJ&K AND HIS CABINET MEMBERS.TITLE OF BOOKS ARE WRITTEN BYTHE FOL KNOWN SCHALOURS AND HISTORIANS OF THE COUNTRY.
1.DR. M. ASHRAF QURESHI – CHAIRMAN KASHMIRAYAT PUNJAB UNIVERISTY.
2.DR.SABIR AFAQI – AUTHOR & HISTORIAN
3.DR.M.SADIQ MALIK- AUTHOR & HISTORIAN ORGANIZATIONS OF MAGRAY TRIBE:
1 MAGRAY SUPREME COUNCIL: IS THE SUPREME BODY OF MAGRAY TRIBE,
EMPOWERED TO TAKE ALL SORT OF POLITICAL AND SOCIO ECONOMICAL DECISIONS IN THE BEST INTEREST OF MAGRAY TRIBE.
2. MAGRAY EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY (REGD): PROMOTES EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITIES IN THE TRIBE AND EVEN OUTSIDE THE MAGRAY TRIBE.
3. MAGRAY TANZEEM (REGD): WAS ESTABLISHED TO PROVIDE A PLATFORM AND ORGANIZE THE MAGRAY TRIBE.
4. MAGRAY WELFARE TRUST: LOOKS AFTER THE ILL, POOR AND NEEDY PEOPLE OF THE KASHMIR IN PARTICULAR AND PAKISTAN IN GENERAL.
MAGRAY-A MARTIAL RACE OF KASHMIR
Magray is a Martial Kashmiri tribe of Rajput origin. Magray sprung from Kashtri-un-Nassal Rajput. Kashtri-un-Nassal Rajput are one of the four classes of Hindus. Kashtri were people of ruling class having responsibility for the defence of the state. Ladhay Magray was the forefather of Magray tribe. Magres accepted Islam at the hand of Syed Ali Hamdani in thirteenth Century. The first person who entered in Kashmir and settled there belonged to Magray tribe thus making Magray tribe, the founders of Kashmir. Magray tribe ruled over Kashmir for seven hundred years. They invited Mughals to enter Kashmir in order to end disturbances in the valley. However, subsequently Mughals were defeated and pushed back by the Magray tribe. Magray tribe is settled all over the world with majority in Kashmir Valley. In spite of being SARDARS of the time, people of Magray tribe felt proud to be called as MAGRAY.
VILLAGES AND TOWNS IN KASHMIR HAVING MAGRAY NAMES:
1. Magray Village - District Bagh
2. Magray City - Kuttan, Neelum valley, Muzaffarabad
3. Magray Hills - Kanchikot, Rawalakot
4. Magray Abad - Rawalakot
5. Magray Gali - Lipa Valley, Muzaffarabad
6. Magray Abad - Attmaqam,Kel road,Neelum Valley
7. Magray Village - Motarin, khaigala, Rawalakot
8. Kharl Magrayan - District Bagh
9. Sardari Magrayan - Neelum Valley Muzaffarabad
10. Magray village marchkot - Abbaspur
11. Bandian Magray - Abbaspur
MEANINGS OF MAGRAY:
Magray is an ancient word, Magray means, "The Martials", "The Warriors", "Military and war like people". Magray is also spelled as Magrey, Magre and Magri, but the correct spelling is Magray. The plural of Magray is Magres.
HISTORY OF MAGRAY TRIBE;
All the historical books on Kashmir contain material on Magray tribe and their role in the history of Kashmir. Few of the historical Books are mentioned here for reference.
1. Magray in the Eyes of History - By Sajid Latif Magray
2. Magray A Warrior Kashmiri Tribe - By Abdul Qayyum
3. Valley of Kashmir - By Sir Walter Lirance
4. mperial Gazettier of India - Govt of India
5. Tribes and Castes of Kashmir - By Muhammad Din Folk
6. Castes and Tribes of Poonch - By Muhammad Din Folk
7. History of Kasmir - - By Khawaja Azamey
8. History of Kashmir - By Muhammad Hassan
9. History Kabeer Kashmir
Women Religious and the Devotional Revolution
Convents Class and Catholic Identity
Transforming Catholic Culture
Bishops Priests and Nuns