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Royal Geographical Society, 1878 - Scientific apparatus and instruments - 103 pages
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accuracy altitude aneroid angles animals apparent approximate astronomical azimuth barometer base bearing better boiling boxes carefully carried chronometer collection compass containing convenient correct cover declination determined difference direction distance error explorer face Fahr Feet fitted fixed give given glass half hand height horizon inches insects instruments laid latitude less light longitude mark means measured mercury meridian method miles minutes nearly necessary object observations obtained ordinary paces packed pair parallel pass plates pocket position possible preparation projection range reduced referring reflection right ascension round rule scale screw sextant sheet side skins species specimens spirit star star's stations sun's surface survey Table taken telescope thermometer traveller triangulation true vertical watch zenith distance
Page 70 - Sound at intervals from shore to shore, fixing your position on each occasion, by a sextant-angle between your starting-place and your assistant's station, and throw the floats overboard, signalling to your assistant when you do so, that he may note the interval that elapses before they severally arrive opposite to him. Take an angle from the opposite shore, to give the breadth of the river. To make the calculation approximately, protract the section of the river on a paper ruled to scale in square...
Page 103 - When the boiling point at the upper station alone is observed, we may assume 30-00 inches, or a little less, as the average height of the barometer at the level of the sea. The altitude of the upper station is then at once approximately obtained from the tables.
Page 75 - ... their economical uses ; always taking care to identify the flowers of the tree or shrub whose root, bark, leaves, wood, &c., are used by the natives, and preserving a few specimens of them. But, if he is the first to ascend any high mountain, he should make as general a collection of the flowering plants as possible, at the higher elevations. The same may be said of insects found on mountains, where they occur in great diversity — on the shady and cold sides rather than on the sunny slopes...
Page 76 - Previous to skinning a small mammal or bird, make a note of the colour of its eyes and soft parts, and, if time admits, of the dimensions of its trunk and limbs. It facilitates skinning of birds to break, before commencing, the first bone of the wings a short distance above the joint, which causes the members to lie open when the specimen is laid on its back on the skinning-board.
Page 78 - ... animals by stretching them, when newly stripped from the animal, over a square framework of sticks, and sewing up the edges ; after being dried in the sun they make excellent packing-cases. With regard to reptiles and fishes, I cannot do better than quote the following remarks sent to me by Mr. Osbert Salvin, who collected these animals most successfully in Guatemala : — " Almost any spirit will answer for this purpose, its fitness consisting in the amount of alcohol contained in it. In all...
Page 67 - A traveller may ascertain the breadth of a river, or that of a valley, or the distance of any object on either side of his line of march, by taking about 60 additional paces and by making a single reference to the Table on the following page.
Page 69 - It will surprise most people, on looking back at their track, to see how curved it has been, and how far E d is from pointing truly towards A.
Page 78 - Where wood is scarce, as in the interior of Africa, boxes may be made of the skins of antelopes, or other large animals, by stretching them when newly stripped from the animal over a square framework of sticks, and sewing up the edges after being dried in the sun ; they make excellent packingcases. With regard to reptiles and fishes, I cannot do better than quote the following remarks sent to me by Mr. Osbert Salvin, who collected these animals most successfully in Guatemala : — " Almost any spirit...
Page 4 - Kew for verification, either to the above address, or through the receiving office at the Meteorological Office, 116, Victoria Street, Westminster, SW Packing. — It is difficult to give general rules, because the modes of transport vary materially in different countries. Inquiry should be made by the intending traveller at the Royal Geographical Society's rooms, as to what would be the best for him. The corners of all the instrument cases should be brass-bound ; the fittings should be screwed,...
Page 79 - Spirit should not be used too strong, as its effect is to contract the outer surface, and thus closing the pores prevent the alcohol from penetrating through to the inner parts of the specimen. The principal point, then, is to watch that the strength of the spirit does not get below a certain point while the specimen is absorbing alcohol when first put in. It will be found that after two or three days the spirit retains its strength ; when this is the case, the specimen will be perfectly preserved....