Environmental Bioremediation Technologies

Front Cover
S.N. Singh, R. D. Tripathi
Springer Science & Business Media, Feb 5, 2007 - Science - 520 pages
Environmental contamination from both natural and anthropogenic sources is, today, a major environmental concern due to pervasiveness and persistence of many toxicants. It is considered as an inevitable evil of our progress and modernization. To decontaminate the soils, sediments and waters, polluted by anthropogenic activities, the scientists and technologists have evolved different technologies over the years. Although we have to pay high cost for physical and chemical environmental technologies, but they are not eco-friendly and safe. Hence, it was deeply realized to develop viable technologies employing microbes and plants to remediate not only metallic residues and radionuclides, but also the xenobiotic compounds like PCBs, PAHs, PCPs, petroleum sludge and the military wastes. No doubt, the scientists have also got some success in this endeavour and as the result, many companies are in place today to promote the sale of plant or microbe-based technologies to deal with specific environmental contamination challenges. Besides, these technologies are se- driven and do not disturb the sites in cleaning process.
 

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Contents

Bioremediation of Organic and Metal Co contaminated Environments Effects of Metal Toxicity Speciation and Bioavailability on Biodegradation
1
2 Metal Toxicity to Microorganisms
2
3 Metal Speciation and Bioavailability
4
4 Metal Inhibition of Biodegradation
19
5 Strategies to Enhance Biodegradation in Cocontaminated Environments
25
6 Conclusions and Future Directions
28
New Bioremediation Technologies to Remove Heavy Metals and Radionuclides using FeIII Sulfate and Sulfur Reducing Bacteria
35
2 Microbial Reduction of Metals by FeIIIreducing Bacteria
36
Aquatic Plants for Phytotechnology
259
3 Conclusion
273
Phytomonitoring of Air Pollutants for Environmental Quality Management
275
2 Plants as Bioindicators of Air Pollutants
279
3 Phytoremediation and Urban Air Quality Management
283
4 Phytoremediation and Indoor Air Quality IAQ
285
5 Conclusion
287
Phytoremediation of Air Pollutants A Review
293

3 Microbial Interaction with Toxic Metals by Sulfatereducing Bacteria
40
4 Development of Biosensors
45
5 Development of Bioreactors
46
6 Conclusion
48
Bioremediation of Soils Polluted with Hexavalent Chromium using Bacteria A Challenge
57
2 Chromium Toxicity
59
Mobility and Bioavailability
61
4 Interaction Between Chromium and Bacteria
62
5 Soil Bioremediation Strategies
67
6 Conclusion
70
Accumulation and Detoxification of Metals by Plants and Microbes
77
2 Phytoremediation
78
3 Microbial Remediation of Metalpolluted Soils
88
4 Heavy Metal Bioremediation using Symbiotic Engineering
91
5 Conclusion
94
Role of Phytochelatins in Phytoremediation of Heavy Metals
101
2 Phytochelatin
103
3 Biosynthesis of Phytochelatins
113
4 Mechanism of Action of Phytochelatins
121
5 Characterization and Regulation of Phytochelatin Synthase Gene
124
6 Evolutionary Aspects of Phytochelatin Synthase
126
7 Genetic Engineering for Enhancing Phytoremediation Potential
130
8 Phytochelatin as a Biosensor
135
Metal Resistance in Plants with Particular Reference to Aluminium
147
2 Phytotoxicity of Al and Agricultural Losses
152
3 Aluminum Tolerant Crop Plants
153
4 Conclusion
166
Bioremediation of Metals Microbial Processes and Techniques
173
3 Microbial Processes Affecting Bioremediation of Metals
177
4 Bioremediation Options for Metal Contaminated Sites
179
5 Bioremediation of Chromium Contaminated Soils
181
6 Future Thrust Do We Really Need to Do More?
184
7 Conclusion
185
Phytoremediation of Metals and Radionuclides
188
2 Metals in Soils
190
3 Radionuclides
192
4 Phytoextraction
195
5 Rhizofiltration
197
6 Phytostabilization
198
7 Phytovolatilization
199
9 Challenges for Phytoremediation
201
10 Companies Developing Phytoremediation
203
11 Regulatory Acceptance and Public Acceptance
204
Nanotechnology for Bioremediation of Heavy Metals
211
3 Unique Properties of Nanoparticles
212
5 Instrumentation for Nanotechnology
213
6 Application and Current Status of Nanotechnology
214
8 Current Strategies for Metal Remediation
215
10 Case Studies
217
11 Magnetotactic Bacteria
218
13 Future Prospects
219
Biotechnological Approaches to Improve Phytoremediation Efficiency for Environment Contaminants
222
The Processes Potentials and Limitations
226
3 Commercial Viability of Phytoremediation Projects
233
4 Rhizosphere Manipulations for Enhanced Bioavailability of the Toxic Substances
234
5 Molecular Mechanisms of Uptake Detoxification Transport and Accumulation of Toxic Substances by Plants and Genetic Engineering for Enhance...
238
6 Conclusion
249
2 Phytotoxicity of Air Pollutants
295
3 Absorption and Assimilation of Pollutants
297
4 Phytofiltration of Particulate Matter
299
5 Plant Tolerance to Ambient Pollutants
301
6 Factors Controlling Plant Tolerance
302
7 A Case Study
304
8 Conclusion
309
Phytoremediation Role of Plants in Contaminated Site Management
315
2 Plant Species Involved in Phytoremediation
316
The Biophysical and Biochemical Mechanisms
317
4 The Vetiver Grass Technology VGT
320
5 Role of VGT in Environmental Management
323
6 Stabilization and Rehabilitation of Mining Overburdens
324
Leachate Retention and Purification
326
8 Removal of Nutrients and Heavy Metals and Prevention of Eutrophication in Streams and Lakes by VGT
327
9 Wastewater Storm water Treatment by VGT in Constructed Wetlands
328
10 Conclusion
329
The Role of Macrophytes in Nutrient Removal using Constructed Wetlands
331
2 Role of Macrophytes in Nutrient Removal
339
3 Conclusion
348
Nitrate Pollution and its Remediation
353
2 Methods for Estimation of Nitrate Pollution
354
3 Sources of Nitrate Pollution
356
4 Landscape Physiology Affecting Nitrate Flux
361
5 Role of Nitrifying and Denitrifying Microbes in Nitrate Pollution
362
6 Nitrate Assimilation by Plants
364
7 Biological Toxicity Due to Nitrate Pollution
368
8 Problem Areas for Nitrate Pollution
369
9 Management Options for Nitrate
372
10 Conclusion
378
Bioremediation of Petroleum Sludge using Bacterial Consortium with Biosurfactant
390
2 Methods
392
3 Results and Discussion
395
4 Conclusion
407
Diversity Biodegradation and Bioremediation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
409
2 Natural Sources of PAHs in the Environment
410
3 Anthropogenic Sources of PAHs in the Environment
411
5 Bioremediation Studies
421
6 Diversity of PAHs Degrading Bacteria
424
7 Diversity of PAHs Metabolic Genes
426
8 Conclusion
431
Environmental Applications of Fungal and Plant Systems Decolourisation of Textile Wastewater and Related Dyestuffs
445
2 Environmental Fate of Textile Dyeing and Treatment Difficulties
446
3 Overview of Biological Treatments
448
4 Extracellular Oxidoreductases Useful in Pollution Abatement
449
5 Textile Dyes Decolourisation by Fungi and their Enzymes
455
7 Conclusion
457
FungalBased Remediation Treatment of PCP Contaminated Soil in New Zealand
464
3 Conclusion
475
Biofilms in Porous Media Mathematical Modeling and Numerical Simulation
481
2 The Physical System
482
3 The Mathematical Model
484
4 Numerical Solution Techniques
488
5 Simulations
497
6 Conclusions
508
Index
512
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