The Caliphate: Its Rise, Decline And Fall from Original Sources
1891. Veteran scholar Sir William Muir's history of the Caliphate. A Caliph is the spiritual head and temporal ruler of the Islamic state. In principle, Islam is theocratic: when Muhammad the Prophet died, a caliph (successor) was chosen to rule in his place. The caliph had temporal and spiritual authority but was not permitted prophetic power; this was reserved for Muhammad. The caliph could not, therefore, exercise authority in matters of religious doctrine. See other titles by this author available from Kessinger Publishing.
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Snippet view - 2005