Modern Shop Practice: A General Reference Work, Volume 3

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American Technical Society, 1916 - Machine-shop practice
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Page 5 - WILLIAM RIPPER Professor of Mechanical Engineering in the Sheffield Technical School; Member of the Institute of Mechanical Engineers. Author of "Machine Drawing and Design.
Page 25 - Long pieces which spring when annealed should not be straightened when cold, if they are to be hardened. HARDENING. Tool steel may be hardened by heating to a low red heat and plunging in some cooling medium, as water, brine or oil. Heating. A piece of steel should never be heated any hotter than is necessary to give the desired result. The heat necessary varies with the make of the steel, the amount of carbon it contains, the size and shape of the piece, and the purpose for which it is to be used.
Page 51 - Fig. 80, shows where the cutting commences, and its increase until it reaches a maximum depth at c, where it may be increased or diminished, according to the angle employed in the operation, the line of cutter action being represented by it.
Page 98 - ... shown at AB, Fig. 151 ; the amount of this inclination varies with the pitch of the thread and the diameter of the piece on which the thread is to be cut. To find the inclination, draw an indefinite straight line AC and at right angles to it draw C D.
Page 2 - Grateful acknowledgment is here made also for the invaluable co-operation of the foremost manufacturers and engineering firms, in making these volumes thoroughly representative of the best and latest practice in...
Page 29 - The heat necessary varies with the make of the steel, the amount of carbon it contains, the size and shape of the piece, and the purpose for which it is to be used. Much depends on heating uniformly; a piece of steel should be given a uniform heat throughout, the edges and corners should be no hotter than the center, and the interior should be of the same temperature as the surface. If not, the piece is likely to crack in the cooling bath, on account of the uneven changes which take place in the...
Page 31 - Fig. 11. red heat and dipped in this solution harden more uniformly than when immersed in clear water. Pack Hardening gives excellent results with pieces that cannot be hardened by the methods ordinarily employed without risk of springing or cracking. The article is packed in an iron box with some carbonaceous material, and subjected to the action of heat to allow it to absorb enough carbon to harden in oil. While this method is not generally used, it is very valuable when hardening such pieces as...
Page 25 - ... steel hot for a long time. Another common method of annealing tool steel is to heat the piece to a red heat and bury it in ashes or lime. This is likely to give unsatisfactory results unless the ashes or lime are also heated. This can be accomplished by first heating a large piece of iron and burying in the contents of the annealing box. When the steel to be annealed is sufficiently heated the piece of iron may be removed and the piece to be annealed put in its place and thoroughly buried in...
Page 4 - WILLIAM JOHN MACQUORN RANKINE, LL. D., FRSS Civil Engineer; Late Regius Professor of Civil Engineering and Mechanics in University of Glasgow, etc. Author of "Applied Mechanics," "The Steam Engine.*' "Civil Engineering," "Useful Rules and Tables," "Machinery and Mill Work,
Page 51 - ... the mixture formed has the consistency of ordinary varnish. After the drill has been dipped in the mixture it should be laid in a warm place to dry ; when thoroughly dried the drill may Fig. 29. Fig. 30. be heated in a tube, or preferably in a crucible of red-hot lead until it is a low red, when it may be plunged in a bath of lukewarm water, or brine ; small drills may be dipped in a bath of oil. The drill must not be put in red-hot lead until the coating is thoroughly...

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