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alter amount applied atmosphere becomes body boiling called cause CHAPTER cold compared condition conduction consider constant containing continually cooling corresponding defined definite density depends described determine diagram diffusion diminishes direction distance effect elasticity energy engine equal exactly exists expand experiments expressed fact flow fluid force freezing gaseous gases given gravity greater height Hence increase indicated isothermal line kind length less light liquid lower mass matter means measured mechanical melting mercury method molecules motion nature observed pass portions pound pressure principle produce properties proportional quantity of heat radiation raise rays relation remains represents result rise scale separation shows sides solid specific heat square standard steam substance suppose surface takes place temperature tension theory thermal thermometer tube uniform unit vapour velocity vessel volume weight whole
Page 76 - The specific gravity of a body is the ratio of its density to that of some standard substance.
Page 147 - It is impossible for a self-acting machine, unaided by any external agency, to convey heat from one body to another at a higher temperature ; or heat cannot of itself (that is, without compensation) pass from a colder to a warmer body.
Page 71 - The straight line or distance between the centres of the transverse lines in the two gold plugs in the bronze bar deposited in the Office of the Exchequer shall be the genuine standard of length at 62° F., and if lost it shall be replaced by means of its copies.
Page 68 - The most important step in the progress of every science is the measurement of quantities. Those whose curiosity is satisfied with observing what happens have occasionally done service by directing the attention of others to the phenomena they have seen; but it is to those who endeavour to find out how much there is of anything that we owe all the great advances in our knowledge.
Page 18 - ... warmed, though the lowest layer is always the hottest. As the temperature increases, the absorbed air which is generally found in ordinary water, is expelled and rises in small bubbles without noise. At last the water in contact with the heated metal becomes so hot that, in spite of the pressure of the atmosphere on the surface of the water, the additional pressure due to the water in the vessel, and the cohesion of the water itself, some of the water at the bottom is transformed into steam,...
Page 303 - ... division in which there is a small hole, and that a being, who can see the individual molecules, opens and closes this hole, so as to allow only the swifter molecules to pass from A to B, and only the slower ones to pass from B to A. He will thus, without expenditure of work, raise the temperature of B and lower that of A, in contradiction to the second law of thermodynamics.
Page 302 - But if we conceive a being whose faculties are so sharpened that he can follow every molecule in its course...
Page 272 - Maxwell denned the coefficient of viscosity as follows: "The coefficient of viscosity of a substance is measured by the tangential force on unit area of either of two horizontal planes at unit distance apart, one of which is fixed while the other moves with unit velocity, the space between being filled with the viscous substance.