The history of the Portuguese, during the reign of Emmanuel: containing all their discoveries, from the coast of Africk to the farthest parts of China; their battles by sea and land, their sieges, and other memorable exploits: with a description of those countries, and a particular account of the religion, government, and customs of the natives; including also, their discovery of the Brazils, and their wars with the Moors

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Printed for A. Millar, 1752 - Portugal
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The Zamorin survived because of the Portuguese.
The Zamorin was ignorant of the political developments in the Middle East. He agreed to the suggestion of Arab traders and Moplah merchants to join the
forces of the Sultan of Gujarat. The Sultan of Gujarat had previously contacted the Ottoman Sultan recommending that a sufficient naval force could help tip the balance of power and allow large portions of India to be added to the Ottoman Empire. On the recommendation of Arab traders and local Moplahs, the Zamorin sought the help of the Sultan of Gujarat. The Sultan readily agreed and it was to assist him a coalition was formed. The Zamorin entered into an alliance with the then Muslim Sultan of Gujarat, Mahmud Begada . The Zamorin unhesitatingly joined the coalition arranged by Gujarat which included the Malmuk of Egypt and the Ottoman without the slightest idea that the defeat of the Portuguese would ultimately lead to the annexation of Malabar by the Sultan of Gujarat. According to the original plan chalked out by the Ottoman sultan, Gujarat Sultanate including Malabar would become a part of the expanding Ottoman Empire after defeating the Portuguese. Almeida had to face the forces of this formidable coalition of the Ottoman Sultan, Mamluk Sultan of Egypt, Gujarat Sultan and the Zamorin.
The Naval Battle of Diu, one of the most celebrated in the history of the Portuguese Navy, was a decisive battle of decimation, where Gujarat had to lose all its naval power. Almeida burned and pillaged their ports and smashed the combined fleets of the Sultans of Egypt, Gujarat and the Zamorin of Calicut. . Casualties from the battle amounted to 32 Portuguese dead, and about 300 wounded. The combined enemy dead were estimated at 3000 killed and an “even larger” number of wounded. The Egyptian and Turkish prisoners were treated badly. Almeida, in retaliation for his son's death, ordered most of them to be hanged, burnt alive or torn to pieces by tying them to the mouths of cannons, then firing them. Writing about the battle afterwards, Almeida said, "As long as you may be powerful at sea, you will hold India as yours; and if you do not possess this power, little will avail you a fortress on the shore." Several of the captured Turkish and Gujarati vessels were sold as prizes, with portions of the money distributed to the fleet sailors and marines. Although the Zamorin was defeated along with the coalition powers, in retrospect it will be seen that the victory of the Portuguese saved Malabar from being annexed by the Sultan of Gujarat to be incorporated later as a part of the far flung Ottoman Empire. If this had happened, the Zamorin regime would have come to an end and Malabar history would have been linked with the history of Gujarat and Bijapur sultanates. The new sea route round the cape was firmly secured for Portugal by the activities of Albuquerque. He fought the Arabs from the Red Sea, all along the Malabar Coast, to the Spice Islands. He conquered Goa (1510) on the Western Coast of India, and Malacca (1511) in Malaysia, the two largest trading posts in the region, and even took the island of Hormuz (1507) off the coast of Arabia
The Zamorin had to face another threat to his survival when Kunjali Marakkar, Kuti Ali Marakkar and Pate Markkar made frequent attacks. Quite surprisingly, the Zamorin sought the help of the Portuguese and with their help the Kunjalis were annihilated in 1539 and the Zamorin’s kingdom was saved by the Portuguese for the second time.. Almeida had permanently established Portuguese presence in the Far East, but Albuquerque, in his short reign of only six years, drove the Arabs from the East and nearly conquered their home base..
 

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Page 55 - The Arabs at that time (15th century), knew the use of the compass, and had sea- charts and maps wherein the situation of the countries were laid down with great accuracy ; nor were they without quadrants, with which they took the altitude of the sun and the latitude of places. In short, so great was their skill in these arts, that they seemed to be very little inferior to the Portuguese pilots, in knowledge of maritime affairs."3 The European portolani are first mentioned in connection with a crusade4...
Page 227 - ... In 1506, two thousand of these secret Jews were literally butchered and cremated in Lisbon. An account of the massacre, by the Catholic prelate Geronymo Osorio, has survived in Latin: This cruel massacre was begun by five hundred, who were at last joined by several others. Transported with madness and boiling with rage, they fell upon the wretched Jews, of whom they killed great numbers, and threw many half alive into the flames. By this time several fires were kindled near the place where the...
Page 223 - ... envied there, he was accused by his enemies of having defrauded the King of a great quantity of gold and of having been guilty of many scandalous and villainous practices. The King therefore ordered him home in irons, where he lived in a very miserable condition, in close confinement for a considerable time, till the affair being more carefully enquired into, it appeared that the crimes laid to his charge were either without foundation or such as did not deserve such severe punishment. Then indeed...
Page 223 - Albuquerque, son of the Albuquerque of Indian fame. The circumstances of his recall are described by Osorio thus : " Pacheco being greatly envied there, he was accused by his enemies of having defrauded the King of a great quantity of gold and of having been guilty of many scandalous and villainous practices. The King therefore ordered him home in irons, where he lived in a very miserable condition, in close confinement for a considerable time, till the affair being more carefully enquired into,...
Page 246 - ... the Count's tent. The latter sat down between him and the interpreter, and told him what had induced him to take this journey, and commended the grace which our Lord Jesus Christ was willing to show even to the heathen. Shikellimus answered, that he was much pleased with the Count's intention, and that he would do every thing in his power to promote the accomplishment of it.* * This Indian afterwards came with some of his family, on a friendly visit to the brethren at Bethlehem; received the...
Page 227 - Fury arofe at laft to fuch a degree, that falling on this unhappy wretch, they dragged him by his hair into the market-place before the church, where they tore him to pieces, and making a fire, threw his body into ir.
Page 122 - Portugal, was at war with none in India, but the Zamorin of Calicut, and the Arabians of Mecca, from whom he had fuffered the greateft indignities.
Page 233 - ... feeing fo many other confiderable princes, both in Africa and India, had voluntarily fubjefted themfelves to his authority. He concluded, however, after the ufual manner of his nation on fuch occafions, with telling him, that if he refufed his generous offers, he...
Page 227 - ... outcries of the women, together with the piteous supplications of the men, might, one would think, have softened the most savage heart into pity; but the actors in this horrid scene were so divested of humanity that they spared neither sex nor age, but wreaked their fury on all without distinction; so that above five hundred Jews were either killed or burnt that day. The news of this massacre having reached the country, next day above a thousand men from the villages flocked into the city and...

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