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Chapter 2Prehistory and Emergence
Chapter 3Two Feedback Threads
Chapter 4Developments in the Cybernetics
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analysis Ashby Ashby's Beer Beer's Bertalanffy black box business cycle causal loop circular causal closed-loop complex systems concept of feedback Culbertson cybernetics thread decisions Deutsch diagram differential equations discrete dynamic behavior Easton economic emphasized endogenous engineering evolution example feed feedback and circular feedback concept feedback control feedback perspective feedback structure feedback systems feedback thinking feedback threads feedback view focus Forrester Forrester's Galanter goal Herbert Simon hierarchy homeostasis homeostatic ideas influence input Leijonhufvud loop concept loop dominance loop polarity loop structure mechanisms metaplans mutual causality negative feedback loop negative loops nonlinear notion observed organism output patterns perceived perception Phillips point of view population positive feedback loop positive loop Powers's Pribram problem processes production quantities result schismogenesis section 3.2 servomechanisms thread signals significant Simon simulation social sciences social scientists social systems stability system dynamics tendency theory tion Tustin variables Weick Wiener