Separatism: Democracy and Disintegration
Rowman & Littlefield, 1998 - Political Science - 338 pages
As we approach the millennium the world is experiencing civil wars exclusively-half of which are being waged over the issue of secession. This book offers a comparative view of nine historic separatist movements, some of which have achieved the break-up of an empire or a state, and others that to date have not. Separatist struggles occur in waves that tend to coincide with upsurges of democratization. Several chapters explore this connection, making comparisons with economic and geopolitical causes. The authors analyze the long term effects of secession: after partition, ethnic strife typically continues for generations; minorities decline in status; and democracy and human rights are derogated. The break-up of one state often leads to further fragmentation, as in the disintegration of the Ottoman, Austro-Hungarian, and Russian empires, where years later separatism unfolded in the successor states of Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, Palestine, Chechnya and Tatarstan. The authors attribute much of today's separatism to the demagoguery of politicians losing legitimacy in post-communist states, for whom nationalism is a convenient populist ideology. A broader explanation, however, points to the failure of modern democracies to develop constitutional mechanisms reconciling the expression of particularistic identities with the universalism of citizenship. The book reviews proposals toward that end.
When States Divide
Separatism Rationality and Irony
The Economics of Secession
The Collapse of the AustroHungarian Empire
Citizenship and the Collapse of the State The Ottoman Case
Who or What Broke Up the Soviet Union?
The Breakup of Yugoslavia
The Partition of Czechoslovakia
Negotiating Autonomy Tatarstan Asymmetrical Federalism and State Consolidation in Russia
The Tamil Secessionist Movement in Sri Lanka Ceylon A Case of Secession by Default?
Quebec A Unique Case Of Secessionism
About the Contributors
accept agreement attempt autonomy became become called Canada central century Chechen Chechnya citizens claims Communist constitution continued created cultural currency Czech Czechoslovakia decision demands democracy democratic economic effect elections emerged empire equality ethnic Europe European example existing fact federal force foreign former Germany groups identity important independence India institutions interests issue Jaffna land language leaders liberal live majority military minority Moscow movements Muslims nationalist negotiations organizations Ottoman party percent political population position president Press principle problems provinces Quebec question referendum reforms region relations remained representatives republics result rule Russian secede secession secessionist self-determination separate separatism separatist separatist movements Sinhalese Slovaks social society sovereignty Soviet Union Tamil Tatars Tatarstan territory tion trade treaty United University USSR vote wanted World Yeltsin Yugoslavia