Separatism: Democracy and Disintegration
Rowman & Littlefield, 1998 - History - 338 pages
As we approach the millennium the world is experiencing civil wars exclusively--half of which are being waged over the issue of secession. This book offers a comparative view of nine historic separatist movements, some of which have achieved the break-up of an empire or a state, and others that to date have not. Separatist struggles occur in waves that tend to coincide with upsurges of democratization. Several chapters explore this connection, making comparisons with economic and geopolitical causes. The authors analyze the long term effects of secession: after partition, ethnic strife typically continues for generations; minorities decline in status; and democracy and human rights are derogated. The break-up of one state often leads to further fragmentation, as in the disintegration of the Ottoman, Austro-Hungarian, and Russian empires, where years later separatism unfolded in the successor states of Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, Palestine, Chechnya and Tatarstan. The authors attribute much of today's separatism to the demagoguery of politicians losing legitimacy in post-communist states, for whom nationalism is a convenient populist ideology. A broader explanation, however, points to the failure of modern democracies to develop constitutional mechanisms reconciling the expression of particularistic identities with the universalism of citizenship. The book reviews proposals toward that end.
When States Divide
Separatism Rationality and Irony
The Economics of Secession
The Collapse of the AustroHungarian Empire
Citizenship and the Collapse of the State The Ottoman Case
Who or What Broke Up the Soviet Union?
The Breakup of Yugoslavia
The Partition of Czechoslovakia
Negotiating Autonomy Tatarstan Asymmetrical Federalism and State Consolidation in Russia
The Tamil Secessionist Movement in Sri Lanka Ceylon A Case of Secession by Default?
Quebec A Unique Case Of Secessionism
agreement Austria Austria-Hungary autonomy Balkan Baltic Bosnia breakup Canada Canadian central century Ceylon Chechen Chechnya citizens citizenship Civic Forum claims colonial Communist conflict constitution created Croatia cultural currency Czech Czechoslovakia declared demands democracy Dudaev economic elections elite emerged ethnic groups Europe European example foreign former Soviet francophone Germany global Gorbachev Habsburg identity ideology independence India interstate system Islam issue Jaffna Kazan Kosovo language leaders liberal LTTE majority military minister minority Moscow Muslims nationalist negotiations Ottoman Empire parliament party percent political population president problems provinces putsch Quebec referendum reforms republic's republics RSFSR Russian Federation seceding region secession secessionist self-determination separatism separatist separatist movements Serbian Serbs Shaimiev Sinhalese Slovakia Slovaks Slovenia Social Democrats socialist society sovereignists sovereignty Soviet Union Sri Lanka Supreme Soviet Tamil Tanzimat Tatars Tatarstan territory tion trade treaty Ukraine United USSR violence vote World Yeltsin Yugoslav Yugoslavia