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Definition of Dystonia and Classification of the Dystonic States
Basal Ganglia Review
Physiology of the Basal Ganglia in Relation to Dystonia
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abnormal acid activity affected appears associated autosomal basal ganglia body brain caudate nucleus cells clinical condition cortex course degeneration Department described developed discussed disease disorder distribution dominant dopamine drugs dystonia musculorum deformans dystonic Eldridge evidence examination family history fibers frequency function GABA genetic globus pallidus glucose head hereditary human improvement included increased indicate individuals inheritance initial involvement Jewish L-DOPA lateral lesions levels manganese marked medial Medical monkey motor movements muscle neck nervous system Neurology neurons normal noted nucleus observed occur onset pallidal pallidal segment parkinsonism patients pattern positive possible postures present Press produced progression projections psychiatric putamen recessive regions reported response seen severe showed significant spasms striatum studies substantia nigra subthalamic suggest symptoms syndrome Table terminals thalamic tion torsion dystonia torticollis treatment tremor University ventral York