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APPROACH RESPONSES TO FIXED INANIMATE OBJECTS
APPROACH RESPONSES TO CHICKS
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adults aggregative tendencies Animal Behavior Society Animal Behaviour approximately Bateson billed gull black-billed gull black-headed gull blindfolded brood mates brood mobility brood movements cage california gulls caspian tern cent chick vocalizations chicks aggregating chicks approached chicks reared colony-reared chicks column common terns critical period days after hatching days of age discriminations domestic chicks early effect elicit approach responses emigrations Emlen excursions experimental chicks familiar objects familiar rearing food reinforcement group-reared chicks gull colonies Hailman hiding places imprinting incandescent light bulbs individual recognition laboratory Laridae latency laughing gull moved observations obtained pairs ph.d precocial species predators preferential approach responses preferential responses present study reared as broods rearing experience rearing pens release point ring-billed gull chicks Rogers City Section VIII semi-precocial sensitive period single chick Sluckin speaker sponses stimulus chicks stimulus objects suggest Table test chicks typical visual stimuli young chicks young gulls young ring-billed gulls