The reflective practitioner: how professionals think in action
A leading M.I.T. social scientist and consultant examines five professions - engineering, architecture, management, psychotherapy, and town planning - to show how professionals really go about solving problems.The best professionals, Donald Schön maintains, know more than they can put into words. To meet the challenges of their work, they rely less on formulas learned in graduate school than on the kind of improvisation learned in practice. This unarticulated, largely unexamined process is the subject of Schön's provocatively original book, an effort to show precisely how 'reflection-in-action' works and how this vital creativity might be fostered in future professionals.
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The Crisis of Confidence in Professional
The Patient as a Universe of One
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action science appreciative system become behavior building Chris Argyris classrooms client competence conflict construct context critics Daedalus depends describe dilemmas Edgar Schein effects engineering epistemology of practice Erik Erikson example experiment experimental expertise feel fessional function geometry Harvey Brooks hypothesis hypothesis testing Ibid idea inquiry institutional interest interpretation intuitive kind knowing-in-practice lems malnourishment means ment methods model of Technical moves norms organization organizational learning patient Petra phenomena planner planning Positivist practitioner practitioner's prob problem solving product development profes professional knowledge professional's question Quist reflect-in-action reflection-in-action reflective contract reflective conversation reflective practice reframing relationship repertoire response rigor schools scientific selectively inattentive sense sional slope social strategies stuck Supervisor teachers Technical Rationality techniques tend theory of action therapy Thomas Kuhn tion tive tried understanding unique virtual world William Alonso