Textbook of Human Physiology ...

Front Cover
P. Blakiston, 1889 - 974 pages
0 Reviews
 

What people are saying - Write a review

We haven't found any reviews in the usual places.

Contents

Microscopic Examination of the Blood
44
Histology of the Human Red Blood Corpuscles
46
Effects of Reagents on the Blood Corpuscles
47
Preparation of the StromaMaking Blood Lake Colored
49
Form and Size of the Blood Corpuscles of Different Animals
50
Origin of the Red Blood Corpuscles
51
Decay of the Red Blood Corpuscles
53
Abnormal Changes of the Blood Corpuscles
58
Chemical Constituents of the Red Blood Corpuscles
59
Quantitative Estimation of Haemoglobin
60
Use of Spectroscope
61
15 Compounds of HaemoglobinMethaemoglobin
62
Carbonic Oxide HaemoglobinPoisoning with Carbonic Oxide
65
7 Other Compounds of Haemoglobin
66
Haemin and Blood Tests
67
Hacmatoidin
68
Proteids of the Stroma
69
Blood Plasma and its Relation to Serum
70
FibrinCoagulation of the Blood
71
General Phenomena of Coagulation
72
Cause of Coagulation of the Blood
74
Source of the Fibrin Factors
77
Chemical Composition of the Plasma and Serum
78
33 The Cases of the Blood
80
34 Extraction of the Blood Gases
81
35 Quantitative Estimation of the Blood Gases
82
The Blood Gases
83
37 Is Ozone 03 present in Blood?
84
Carbon dioxide and Nitrogen in Blood
85
39 Arterial and Venous Blood
86
Variations from the Normal Conditions of the Blood
87
General View of the Circulation
91
The Heart
92
Arrangement of the Ventricular Fibres
94
Pericardium Endocardium Valves
95
Automatic Regulation of the Heart
96
The Movements of the Heart
98
Pathological Disturbances of Cardiac Action
101
The Apex BeatThe Cardiogram
102
SECTION PACK 103 The SpleenThymusThyroidSuprarenal CapsulesHypophysis CerebriCoccygeal
103
The Time Occupied by the Cardiac Movements
107
Pathological Disturbance of the Cardiac Impulse no 53 The Heart Sounds
112
Variations of the Heart Sounds
114
The Duration of the Movements of the Heart
116
Physical Examination of the Heart
117
The Automatic Motor Centres of the Heart
119
The Cardiopneumatic Movements
128
Influence of the Respiratory Pressure on the Heart
129
The Flow of Fluids through Tubes
132
Currents through Capillary Tubes
134
Investigation of the Pulse
139
Pulse Tracing or Sphygmogram
144
Origin of the Dicrotic Wave
145
Dicrotic Pulse
148
Characters of the Pulse
149
Variations in the Strength Tension and Volume of the Pulse
150
The Pulse Curves of various Arteries
151
Influence of the Respiratory Movements on the Pulse Curve
153
Influence of Pressure upon the Form of the Pulse Wave
155
Rapidity of Transmission of Pulse Waves
156
Other Pulsatile Phenomena
157
Vibrations communicated to the Body by the Action of the Heart
158
The Blood Current
159
Schemata of the Circulation
161
Blood Pressure in the Arteries
165
Blood Pressure in the Capillaries
171
Blood Pressure in the Pulmonary Artery
173
Measurement of the Velocity of the Blood Stream
175
Velocity of the Blood in Arteries Capillaries and Veins
177
Estimation of the Capacity of the Ventricles
179
Work of the Heart
180
Passage of the Blood Corpuscles out of the Vessels Diapedesis
182
Movement of the Blood in the Veins
183
Sounds or Bruits within Arteries
184
Venous Murmurs
185
Distribution of the Blood
187
Transfusion of Blood
189
and Carotid Glands
200
Comparative
201
Historical Retrospect
202
PHYSIOLOGY OF RESPIRATION 106 Structure of the Air Passages and Lungs
203
Mechanism of Respiration
209
Quantity of Gases Respired
210
Number of Respirations
211
no Time occupied by the Respiratory Movements
212
Pathological Variations of the Respiratory Movements
215
General View of the Respiratory Muscles
216
Action of the Individual Respiratory Muscles
217
Relative Size of the Chest
220
Pathological Variations of the Percussion Sounds
222
The Normal Respiratory Sounds
223
Pathological Respiratory Sounds
224
Pressure in the Air Passages during Respiration
225
Appendix to Respiration
226
Quantitative Estimation of CO O and Watery Vapor
227
Methods of Investigation
228
Composition and Properties of Atmospheric Air
230
Composition of Expired Air
231
Daily Quantity of Gases Exchanged
232
Diffusion of Gases within the Lungs
234
Exchange of Gases between the Blood and Air
237
Cutaneous Respiration
238
Respiration in a Closed Space
240
Dyspnoea and Asphyxia
241
Respiration of Foreign Gases
244
Ventilation of Rooms
245
Action of the Atmospheric Pressure
247
Comparative and Historical
249
PHYSIOLOGY OF DIGESTION 141 The Mouth and its Glands
250
The Salivary Glands
252
Histological Changes in Salivary Glands
253
The Nerves of the Salivary Glands
255
Action of Nerves on the Salivary Secretion
256
The Saliva of the Individual Glands
260
The Mixed Saliva in the Mouth
261
Physiological Action of Saliva
262
Tests for Sugar
264
Quantitative Estimation of Sugar
265
Mechanism of the Digestive Apparatus
266
Introduction of the Food
267
Structure and Development of the Teeth
268
Movements of the Tongue
271
Deglutition
272
Movements of the Stomach
275
Vomiting
276
Movements of the Intestine
277
SECTION PAGB 160 Excretion of Fecal Matter
278
Conditions influencing the Movements of the Intestine
280
Structure of the Stomach
284
The Gastric Juice
287
Secretion of Gastric Juice
288
Methods of obtaining Gastric Juice
291
Process of Gastric Digestion
292
Gases in the Stomach
297
The Pancreatic Juice
298
Digestive Action of the Pancreatic Juice
299
The Secretion of the Pancreatic Juice
302
Preparation of Peptonized Food
303
Chemical Composition of the Liver Cells
307
Diabetes Mellitus or Glycosuria
310
The Functions of the Liver
311
Constituents of the Bile
312
Secretion of Bile
315
Excretion of Bile
316
Reabsorption of BileJaundice
317
Functions of the Bile
319
Fate of the Bile in the Intestine
320
The Intestinal Juice
321
Fermentation Processes in the Intestine
328
Pathological Variations
331
Comparative Physiology
333
Historical Retrospect
334
PHYSIOLOGY OF ABSORPTION 189 The Organs of Absorption
336
Absorption of the Digested Food
342
Absorptive Activity of the Wall of the Intestine
344
Influence of the Nervous System
347
Chyle Vessels and Lymphatics
348
The Lymph Glands 35
351
Properties of Chyle and Lymph
353
Quantity of Lymph and Chyle
354
Origin of Lymph
355
Movement of Chyle and Lymph
356
Absorption of Parenchymatous Effusions
359
Comparative Physiology 360
360
PHYSIOLOGY OF ANIMAL HEAT 206 Sources of Heat
362
Homoiothermal and Poikilothermal Animals
365
Methods of Estimating TemperatureThermometry
366
Temperature Topography
369
Conditions Influencing the Temperature of Organs
370
Estimation of the Amount of HeatCalorimetry
371
Thermal Conductivity of Animal Tissues
373
Regulation of the Temperature
376
Income and Expenditure of Heat
379
Variations in Heat Production 3
380
Relation of Heat Production to Bodily Work
381
Storage of Heat in the Body
382
SECTION PAGE 220 Fever
383
Artificial Increase of the Temperature
384
Increase of Temperature postmortem
385
Artificial Lowering of Temperature
386
Employment of Cold
387
General View of Food Stuffs
388
Structure and Secretion of the Mammary Glands
390
Milk and its Preparations
392
Eggs
395
Flesh and its Preparations
396
Vegetable Foods
397
CondimentsCoffee Tea and Alcohol
400
Equilibrium of the Metabolism
402
Metabolism during Hunger and Starvation
408
Metabolism during a purely Flesh Diet
409
The Animal and Vegetable Proteids and their Properties
424
The Albuminoids
426
The Fats
430
Historical Retrospect
433
THE SECRETION OF URINE 254 Structure of the Kidney
434
The Urine 44
435
Organic Constituents of UrineUrea
443
Qualitative and Quantitative Estimation of Urea
446
Uric Acid
447
Qualitative and Quantitative Estimation of Uric Acid
449
Coloring Matters of the Urine
452
Spontaneous Changes in Urine Fermentations
456
Albumin in Urine
457
Blood in Urine
460
Bile in Urine
462
Cystin
465
General Scheme for Detecting Urinary Deposits
467
Urinary Calculi
468
SECTION PAGE 274 The Formation of Urinary Constituents
473
Passage of Various Substances into the Urine
475
Influence of Nerves on the Renal Secretion
476
Uraemia Ammoniaemia
479
Structure and Functions of the Ureter
480
Urinary Bladder and Urethra
481
Accumulation and Retention of Urine
483
Retention and Incontinence of Urine
486
FUNCTIONS OF THE SKIN 283 Structure of the Skin Nails and Hair
487
The Glands of the Skin
492
The Skin as a Protective Covering
493
Conditions Influencing the Secretion of Sweat
495
Pathological Variations
497
Cutaneous AbsorptionGalvanic Conduction
498
ComparativeHistorical
499
PHYSIOLOGY OF THE MOTOR APPARATUS 291 Ciliary Motion Pigment Cells
500
Structure and Arrangement of the Muscles
502
Physical and Chemical Properties of Muscle
511
Metabolism in Muscle
513
Rigor mortis
515
Muscular Excitability
519
Changes in a Muscle during Contraction
524
Muscular Contraction
526
Rapidity of Transmission of a Muscular Contraction
537
Muscular Work
538
The Elasticity of Muscle
541
Formation of Heat in an Active Muscle
543
The Muscle Sound
545
The Mechanism of the Joints
547
Arrangement and Uses of the Muscles of the Body
549
GymnasticsPathological Motor Variations
553
Standing
554
Sitting
555
Comparative
558
VOICE AND SPEECH 312 Voice and Speech
559
Arrangement of the Larynx
560
Organs of VoiceLaryngoscopy
565
Conditions Modifying the Laryngeal Sounds
568
Range of the Voice 59
569
The Consonants
572
Pathological Variations of Voice and Speech
573
GENERAL PHYSIOLOGY OF THE NERVES AND ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY 321 Structure and Arrangement of the Nerve Elements
575
Chemical and Mechanical Properties of Nerve Substance
581
Metabolism of Nerves
582
Excitability of NervesStimuli
583
Diminution of ExcitabilityDegeneration and Regeneration of Nerves
587
SKCTION PACK 326 The Galvanic Current
591
Action of the Galvanic CurrentGalvanometer
593
Electrolysis
594
InductionExtraCurrentMagnetoInduction
599
Du BoisReymonds Inductorium
601
Electrical Currents in Passive Muscle and Nerve
603
Currents of Stimulated Muscle and Nerve
607
Currents in Nerve and Muscle during Electrotonus
611
Theories of Muscle and Nerve Currents
613
Electrotonic Alteration of the Excitability
615
ElectrotonusLaw of Contraction
617
Rapidity of Transmission of Nervous Impulses
620
Double Conduction in Nerves
623
Therapeutical Uses of ElectricityReaction of Degeneration
624
Electrical Charging of the Body
629
Classification of Nerve Fibres
631
Nervus Olfaclorius
634
Nervus Oculomotorius
637
Nervus Trochlearis
639
Nervus Trigeminus
640
Nervus Abducens
649
Nervus Acusticus
653
Nervus Glossopharyngeus
655
Nervus Vagus
656
Nervus Accessorius
664
The Spinal Nerves
665
The Sympathetic Nerve
670
ComparativeHistorical
673
PHYSIOLOGY OF THE NERVE CENTRES 358 General
675
Structure of the Spinal Cord
676
Spinal Reflexes
686
Inhibition of the Reflexes
689
Centres in the Spinal Cord
693
Excitability of the Spinal Cord
695
The Conducting Paths in the Spinal Cord
696
General Schema of the Brain
700
The Medulla Oblongata
705
Reflex Centres of the Medulla Oblongata
710
The Respiratory Centre
712
The CardioInhibitory Centre
718
The Accelerans Cordis Centre
720
Vasomotor Centre and Vasomotor Nerves
722
Vaso dilator Centre and Vasodilator Nerves
729
The Spasm CentreThe Sweat Centre
730
Psychical Functions of the Cerebrum
732
Structure of the CerebrumMotor Cortical Centres
737
The Sensory Cortical Centres
751
The Thermal Cortical Centres
755
Topography of the Cortex Cerebri
756
The Basal GangliaThe Midbrain
765
3S0 The Structure and Functions of the Cerebellum
772
The Protective Apparatus of the Brain
776
ComparativeHistorical
779
PHYSIOLOGY OF THE SENSE ORGANS I SIGHT SECTION PAGE 383 Introductory Observations
781
Histology of the Eye
783
Dioptric Observations
792
Formation of a Retinal Image
796
Accommodation of the Eye
799
Normal and Abnormal Refraction
803
The Power of Accommodation
806
Chromatic Aberration and Astigmatism
807
Entoptical Phenomena
812
Illumination of the EyeThe Ophthalmoscope
814
Activity of the Retina in Vision
818
Perception of Colors
822
Color Blindness
828
Stimulation of the Retina
829
Movements of the Eyeballs
833
Binocular Vision
837
Stereoscopic Vision
839
Estimation of Size and Distance
842
Protective Organs of the Eye
843
ComparativeHistorical
845
HEARING 406 Structure of the Organ of Hearing
847
Physical Introduction
848
Ear Muscles
849
The AuditorOssicles and their Muscles
851
Eustachian TubeTympanum
855
Conduction of Sound in the Labyrinth
856
Structure of the Labyrinth
857
Auditory Perceptions of Pitch
860
Perception of QualityVowels
863
Action of the Labyrinth
867
HarmonyDiscordsHeats
868
Perception of Sound
869
ComparativeHistorical
870
SMELL 420 Structure of the Organ of Smell
871
Olfactory Sensations
872
TASTE
873
Position and Structure of the Organs of Taste
874
Gustatory Sensations
876
TOUCH
877
Terminations of Sensory Nerves
878
Sensory and Tactile Sensations
881
The Sense of Locality
882
The Pressure Sense
885
The Temperature Sense
887
Common SensationPain
889
The Muscular Sense
891
SECTION PAGE 431 Forms of Reproduction
893
TestisSeminal Fluid 096
896
The OvaryOvumUterus
901
Puberty
906
Menstruation
907
PenisErection
909
EjaculationReception of the Semen
911
Fertilization of the Ovum
912
Impregnation and Cleavage of the Ovum
913
Structures formed from the Epiblast
917
Structures formed from the Mesoblast and the Hypoblast
919
Formation of the Heart and Embryo
921
Further formation of the Body
922
Formation of the Amnion and Allantois
924
Human Foetal MembranesPlacenta
925
Chronology of Human Development
929
Formation of the Osseous System
930
Development of the Vascular System
934
Formation of the Intestinal Canal
938
Development of GenitoUrinary Organs
940
Formation of the Central Nervous System
943
Development of the Sense Organs
944
Birth
946
ComparativeHistorical
947
Appendix A Bibliography
950
Appendix B Tables of Measure Metric and Ordinary and of Temperature
954
Index
955
The Secretion of Urine 49
4

Other editions - View all

Common terms and phrases

Popular passages

Page 243 - Replace the patient on the face, raising and supporting the chest well on a folded coat or other article of dress. Turn the body very gently on the side and a little beyond, and then briskly on the face, back again, repeating these measures cautiously, efficiently, and perseveringly, about fifteen times in the minute, or once every four or five seconds, occasionally varying the side.
Page 243 - Draw forward the patient's tongue, and keep it projecting beyond the lips; an elastic band over the tongue and under the chin will answer this purpose, or a piece of string or tape may be tied round them, or by raising the lower jaw the teeth may be made to retain the tongue in that position. Remove all tight clothing from about the neck and chest, especially the braces.
Page 243 - ... (By this means air is drawn into the lungs.) Then turn down the patient's arms, and press them gently and firmly for two seconds against the sides of the chest. ( By this means air is pressed out of the lungs...
Page 648 - When this muscle contracts, the lower part of the arch, consisting of the handle of the malleus and the long process of the incus, is...
Page 46 - The bottom of this is divided into -fa millimetre squares. Upon the top of the cell rests the cover-glass, which is kept in its place by the pressure of two springs proceeding from the ends of the stage plate.
Page 243 - Repeat these measures alternately, deliberately, and perseveringly, about fifteen times in a minute, until a spontaneous effort to respire is perceived ; immediately upon which cease to imitate the movements of breathing...
Page 243 - On each occasion that the body is replaced on the face, make uniform but efficient pressure with brisk movement, on the back between and below the shoulder-blades or bones on each side, removing the pressure immediately before turning the body on the side.
Page 243 - ... seconds, occasionally varying the side. (By placing the patient on the chest the weight of the body forces the air out; when turned on the side this pressure is removed, and air enters...
Page 46 - ... puncture in the finger and then blown into the solution. The two fluids are well mixed by rotating the stirrer between the thumb and finger, and a small drop of this dilution is placed in the centre of the cell, the...
Page 60 - The distilled water rapidly dissolves out all the haemoglobin, as is shown by the fact that the tint of the dilution undergoes no change on standing. The color of a dilution of average normal blood one hundred times is taken as the standard. The quantity of haemoglobin is indicated by the amount of distilled water needed to obtain the tint with the same volume of blood under examination as was taken of the standard. On account of the instability of a standard dilution of blood, tinted glycerine jelly...

Bibliographic information