The Just War in the Middle Ages
The first systematic attempt to reconstruct from original manuscript sources and early printed books the medieval doctrines relating to the just war, the holy war and the crusade. Despite the frequency of wars and armed conflicts throughout the course of western history, no comprehensive survey has previously been made of the justifications of warfare that were elaborated by Roman lawyers, canon lawyers and theologians in the twelfth and thirteenth century universities. After a brief survey of theories of the just war in antiquity, with emphasis on Cicero and Augustine, and of thought on early medieval warfare, the central chapters are devoted to scholastics such as Pope Innocent IV, Hostiensis and Thomas Aquinas. Professor Russell attempts to correlate theories of the just war with political and intellectual development in the Middle Ages. His conclusion evaluates the just war in the light of late medieval and early modern statecraft and poses questions about its compatibility with Christian ethics and its validity within international law.
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Alanus Alexander of Hales analysis Aquinas attack Augustine Augustine's Augustinian autem B.N. Lat bellum bishops canon law canonists causa cause Christian Church cited in Baldwin clerics command condemned considered contemporary crusades declare Decretalists decretals Decretists Decretum defense discussion divine ecclesiastical Emperor enemies excommunicated faith feudal fight Glossa Ordinaria Gratian guerre heretics Holy Land Hostiensis Huguccio ibid illicit infidels injuries Innocent Israelites iuste iustum Johannes Teutonicus jurisdiction justice justified killing king knights Lectura licit lord medieval Middle Ages military service moral obedience obligations Odofredus Opera Omnia opinion pagans papal passage patria peace Peter the Chanter political pope potest prelates problem prohibited punishment quaestio quod Raymond of Penafort regalia rendered Robert of Courson Roland of Cremona Roman law Romanists Rufinus Saracens secular self-defense soldiers spiritual spoils Summa temporal territory Testament theologians theories treatment truce unjust unjustly vassal Vincent of Beauvais violence warfare