The Psychology of Child Development: With an Introduction by John Dewey

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University of Chicago Press, 1903 - Child development - 265 pages
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Page 16 - This child did, consequently another child may.' Yet the uncertainties of the case may be summed up and avoided if certain principles of mental development are kept in view. 1. In the first place, we can fix no absolute time in the history of the mind at which a certain mental function takes its rise. The observations, now quite extensively recorded, and sometimes quoted as showing that the first year, or the second year, etc., brings such and such developments, tend, on the contrary, to show that...
Page 47 - ... vigorous, loud expirations of the breath, by cries, and, even at the earliest period, by an unmistakable play of the countenance, especially by the shape the mouth takes. Little as is known thus far of the emotions and feelings of the young child, one thing may, however, be declared as certain — that these are the first of all psychical events to appear with definiteness, and that they determine the behavior of the child. Before a sure sign of will, of memory, judgment, inference, in the proper...
Page 56 - the time at which a child first betrays fear depends essentially upon his treatment;" that "the avoidance of occasions of pain prolongs the period that is marked by unconsciousness of fear; whereas the multiplication of such occasions shortens the period.
Page 85 - ... to try to catalogue it as a content. We can only say of the process in hand that it arises in such a situation and performs a certain function. We thus do not do it the violence of trying to label it according to its most prominent characteristic, ignoring the others as mere appurtenances that 84 it were really better to lop off in order to get at the real, the essential content.
Page 137 - It is clear he cannot at first, nor even well-nigh to youth, have a comprehension of the meaning of the complex system of values recognized by society. He can learn their meaning only by meeting crises for himself and readjusting his direct and unreflective action to broader settings. Such a process necessitates years of growth mentally and abundant opportunity for interaction with playmates and elders. Until he has thus grown into this complex life, its requirements must always seem external and,...
Page 64 - I could, not seldom, distinguish accurately the astonishment of the infant from that strain of attention — and this in the twenty-second week. When the child was in a railwaycarriage, and I suddenly entered after a brief separation, so that at the same moment he saw my face and heard my voice, he fixed his gaze upon me for more than a minute, with open mouth (the lower jaw dropped), with wide-open, motionless eyes, and in other respects absolutely immovable, exhibiting the typical image of astonishment.
Page 93 - ... illustrated in the development of a little habit of striking his lips while making the sound of ah, a peculiar succession of labials being produced. At first he did this with both fists together, then gradually began to use the right hand, and finally did it with the forefinger of the right hand. plex activities. — Let us, after the somewhat long digression, return to the baby's act of following a moving object with the eyes. We said that such a simple act of controlling a stimulus was made...
Page 120 - Were there ever children who did not "buy " things from fancied stalls in every corner of the nursery, when they had once seen an elder drive a trade in the market ? The point is this: the child's personality grows; growth is always by action ; he clothes upon himself the scenes of his life, and acts them out; so he grows in what he is, what he understands, and what he is able to perform.
Page 124 - ... facial expression are never acquired by blind children. We could hardly say that facial expression was a voluntary acquisition, however gradually it may have been acquired. See Preyer, Senses and Will, p. 293. pie ' imitations reactions are characterized, in which the movement does not imitate well, but is the best the child can do. He does not try to improve by making a second attempt. This is evidently a case of simple sensori-motor suggestion, and is peculiar psychologically only because of...
Page 107 - ... example, when (in the sixteenth month) he opens and shuts cupboards, picks up from the floor, and brings objects that he threw down.1 The difficulty here, from Preyer's standpoint, is a real one. The obstacles to applying a subjective criterion to the child's actions are insuperable. Preyer continues : When, on the contrary, at this period he holds, entirely of his own motion, an earring that had been taken off, to the ear from which it was taken, I am inclined to see in that already a sign of...

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