The grand instructions to the commissioners appointed to frame a new code of laws for the Russian empire

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Printed for T. Jefferys, 1768 - Law reform - 256 pages
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Page 115 - Man ought to be looked upon as guilty before he has received his judicial Sentence; nor can the Laws deprive him of their Protection before it is proved that he has forfeited all Right to it. What Right therefore can Power give to any to inflict Punishment upon a Citizen at a Time when it is yet dubious whether he is innocent or guilty?
Page 138 - ... their revenues; and oblige them to levy such a tax as tends least to separate the peasant from his house and family: this would be the means by which agriculture would become more extensive, and population more increased in the empire.
Page 77 - VI 40. Of Laws in general. 41. Nothing ought to be forbidden by the Laws but what may be prejudicial, either to every Individual in particular, or to the whole Community in general. 42. All Actions which comprehend nothing of this Nature are in nowise cognizable by the Laws; which are made only with the View of procuring the greatest possible Advantage and Tranquillity to the People, who live under their Protection. 43. To preserve Laws from being violated, they ought to be so good, and so well...
Page 193 - A Monarchy is destroyed, when the Sovereign imagines, that he displays his Power more by changing the Order of Things, than by adhering to it...
Page 116 - That the Innocent ought not to be tortured; and, in the Eye of the Law, every Person is innocent whose Crime is not yet proved. It is undoubtedly extremely necessary that no Crime, after it has been proved, should remain unpunished.
Page 148 - ... Machines which shorten Labour, that is, which diminish the Number of Workmen, will be greatly prejudicial to a populous Country. 315. Yet, we ought to distinguish between what we manufacture for our Home-consumption, and what we manufacture for Exportation into foreign Countries. 316. Too much Use cannot be made of this Kind of Machines in our Manufactures, which we export to other Nations; who do, or may receive the same Kind of Goods, from our Neighbours or other People; especially those who...
Page 148 - Arts, are not always useful. If a Piece of Work, wrought with the Hands, can be afforded at a Price equally advantageous to the Merchant and the Manufacturer; in this Case, Machines which shorten Labour, that is, which diminish the Number of Workmen, will be greatly prejudicial to a populous Country. 315. Yet, we ought to distinguish between what we manufacture for our Home-consumption, and what we manufacture for Exportation into foreign Countries.
Page 104 - ... strict and close Adherence to the Letter of penal Laws, are by no Means comparable to those which are produced by the arbitrary Interpretation of them. The Errors proceeding from the first are only temporary, and will oblige the Legislator to make, sometimes, easy and necessary Corrections in such Words of the Law as are capable of a double Meaning. However, it will prove a Bridle to curb that licentious Method of interpreting and deciding at their own Discretion, which may prove fatal to every...
Page i - The grand Instructions to the Commissioners appointed to frame a new Code of Laws for the Russian Empire; composed by Her Imperial Majesty Catherine II., Empress of all the Russias.
Page 138 - ... more increased in the empire. Even now, some husbandmen do not see their houses for fifteen years together, and yet pay the tax annually to their respective lords; which they procure in towns at a vast distance from their families, and wander over the whole empire for that purpose.

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