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The German Peoples in the Carolingian Empire
Government and Politics from the Interregnum
The First Century of the German Monarchy
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administration alliance anti-king archbishop aristocracy attempt Austria Barbarossa Bavaria became Billung bishops Bohemia Burgundy Carolingian Church cities colonization concessions conflict Conrad consolidation counts crown death defeat duchy duke dynasty east ecclesiastical Elbe election electoral eleventh century emperor empire England established estates exploited feudal fiefs forced foundation France Frankish Frederick Frederick Barbarossa French frontiers German history German king German monarchy Goslar Gregory VII Habsburg hands Henry IV Henry IV's Henry the Lion Henry's hereditary Hist Hohenstaufen imperial policy imperial title interests Investiture Contest Italian Italy kingdom lands Lombard Lombard League Lorraine Lothar ment ministeriales nobility opposition Otto Otto III Otto's papacy papal particular party peace period Philip political pope pope's position principles provinces Prussia reform reign result Rome royal Rudolf rule ruler Salian Saxon secure settlement Sicily Slav social sought struggle success successor Swabia territorial throne Thuringia tion Tuscany unity Welf