Translated by W.H.White and A.K.Stirling. With an Introduction by Don Garrett. Benedict de Spinoza lived a life of blameless simplicity as a lens-grinder in Holland. And yet in his lifetime he was expelled from the Jewish community in Amsterdam as a heretic, and after his death his works were first banned by the Christian authorities as atheistic, then hailed by humanists as the gospel of Pantheism. His 'Ethics Demonstrated in Geometrical Orde shows us the reality behind this enigmatic figure. First published by his friends after his premature death at the age of forty-four, the 'Ethics' uses the methods of Euclid to describe a single entity, properly called both 'God' and 'Nature', of which mind and matter are two manifestations. From this follow, in ways that are strikingly modern, the identity of mind and body, the necessary causation of events and actions, and the illusory nature of free will. AUTHOR: Benedictus de Spinoza (1632 - 1677) was a Dutch philosopher of Portuguese-Jewish origin. He is considered to be one of Western philosophy's most important philosophers.
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able absurd according action actually adequate affect affirm agree arises attribute Axiom believe better called cause clear clearly common conceived conception connected consequently considered consists constitutes contemplate contingent contrary Corollary Definition Demonstration desire determined distinct distinguished divine easily effort endeavour equal essence eternal Ethics everything evident evil example existence explain expresses external body external cause fear follows future given greater hand happens hate hatred Hence human body human mind idea imagine individual things infinite intellect involve kind knowledge laws less live manner means mode motion nature necessarily necessary necessity nevertheless object observed ourselves pass passions perceives perfect person possesses possible present preserve profitable Proposition 13 Q.E.D. Proposition Q.E.D. Scholium reason reference regard rest restrained say Proposition shown sorrow Spinoza substance supposed things third thought tion true truth understand understood universal unless virtue whole
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