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benefits capital central Cold War command economies comparative advantage conditions of economic corporatist costs countertrade create diffuse dismantling distribution East European countries Eastern Europe economic and political economic cooperation economic crisis economic growth economic liberalization economic reform emergence employment ensure enterprises ethnic European Community European Payments Union exchange rate export former Communist Gradualists argue ideological illiberal incentives industrial structure insulated international economy labor legacy of Leninism Leninist regimes liberal democracy liberal reform losers macroeconomic managerial elites market economy market reforms markets and democracy mobilize nomenklatura opponents of liberalization party policies political liberalization political power political process political support politicians polyarchy post-communist regimes post-communist societies pressure price liberalization privatization producers protect radical reform rapid region rent-seeking resource in exchange restructuring role scenario sectors side payments simultaneously social base social legacies Soviet Union stable democracy subsidies suppliers support for liberalizers tempted undermine liberalizers universal citizenship vertical integration weakened West Western widespread