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adjoining adopted Adriatic Agatharchides Alexandria Alps already ancient appears Arabia Armenia Artemidorus Asia Augustus Bactria Britain Caesar called Cape Cappadocia Caspian certainly Chapter coast of Africa concerning considerable continued Danube derived describes Dion Cass distance dominion doubt east Eratosthenes erroneous error Euphrates Euxine extending Gades Gaul geographical knowledge German Greek Gulf Hipparchus Ibid imperfect important India inhabited interior island king known lake land latitude longitude manner Marinus Mauretania Mediterranean mentioned miles Mithridates modern mountain mouth nations native neighbouring Nile northern notice occupied Ocean parallel Parthian passage period Periplus Plin Pliny Polybius port portion Posidonius position possessed probably promontory Ptol Ptolemy regard regions reign remarkable Rhine river Roman Empire Roman province Sarmatians Scythian seen shores stadia statement Strabo Straits Suevi supposed Tacitus thence tion tribes vague voyage whole writers
Page 252 - Arteniidorus especially ; and takes the opportunity of commenting on the diversity frequently found in this respect among different authors.7 When he has no means of determining between them, he adds, he contents himself with repeating the conflicting statements : but it does not seem to have occurred to him that the Roman authorities, having the advantage of measured roads, were in most cases, if not in all, entitled to the greater credit.8 In describing Brundusium he notices briefly the course...
Page 540 - Ptolemy's method and principles is thoroughly satisfactory ; and hio views concerning the real value of his positions are those at which every unprejudiced student of that celebrated author must necessarily arrive. But I dissent altogether from the conclusions he has drawn with respect to the special subject of the Nile. § 8. It would however be altogether unjust to Ptolemy to hold him responsible for the exaggerated estimate that has been too often formed of the true value of his geographical positions....
Page 613 - ... to the south of the Atlas ; a desert that so long proved an insuperable barrier to all European travellers. It is a point that has been too much lost sight of in the discussion of this question, that Ptolemy gives no indication of the existence of the Sahara between the land of the Gsetulians, and his rivers Gir and Nigir. It is certain that there is nothing to show that he had any knowledge of the occurrence of such a vast tract of desert to the south of Gaetulia ; and the omission is rendered...
Page 410 - The voyage is now made every year, with cohorts of archers on board the ships: on account of the pirates who infest these seas. It will be worth while (he adds) to set forth their whole course from Egypt : accurate information concerning it being now for the first time available. The subject is one worthy of attention, there being no year in which India does not drain our empire of at least 55,000,000 of sesterces, sending us in return wares which are sold for a hundred times their original value.
Page 555 - It is evident that both the causes which we have just been considering would continue to operate with at least equal force upon the continuation of the map of the world east of the Mediterranean. The effect of erroneous graduation would indeed of necessity be cumulative, and produce a greater amount of displacement the farther it was carried eastwards. Nor were land itineraries more trustworthy than marine ones. We have already had occasion more than once to point out the defective character of all...
Page 194 - The tin extracted from these mines was fused into ingots of a peculiar shape, and carried to a small island adjoining Britain of the name of Ictis. Here it was purchased by traders, who carried it to Gaul, where it was transported over land on horses in about thirty days to the mouths of the Rhone. The island of Ictis is described as surrounded by the sea at high water, but connected with the main land by a tract of sand, which was left bare at low water, so as to render it a peninsula, to which...
Page 410 - Arabia, or Cane in the frankincense-bearing region. There is also a third port which is called Muza, which is not frequented by those sailing to India, but by the merchants who trade in frankincense and other Arabian perfumes. In the interior is a city, the capital of the kingdom, named Sapphar, and another called Save. But for those whose course is directed to India it is most advantageous to start from Ocelis. From thence they sail with the wind called Hippalus in forty days to the first commercial...
Page 305 - It remains therefore to apply the name of Emodus or Emodi to the great central chain of the Himalayas, in which the Ganges as well as the Jumna and Sutledge takes its rise : and this appears to be the sense in which Strabo understood the term, though differing materially from its use by later geographers.7 Of the great peninsula of India, to the south of a line drawn from the mouths of the Indus to those of the Ganges, he gives us no particulars at all. Altogether it may safely be asserted that while...
Page 113 - Ca?sar himself before the close of the season made an expedition against the distant nations of the Morini and the Menapii, who had made no signs of submission, but they retreated before his approach into the vast forests and marshes with which their country was almost wholly covered, into which he found it impracticable to pursue them.8 § 6. At the close of this third year's campaign, as remarked by Dr. Merivale, "the only members of the Gaulish race who retained their liberty were the mountain...