Evolution and Human Behavior: Darwinian Perspectives on Human Nature

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MIT Press, 2000 - Psychology - 376 pages
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The past decade has seen an upsurge of interest in the application of evolutionary thinking to the study of human behavior. This introductory book provides an overview of the key theoretical principles of human sociobiology and evolutionary psychology and shows how they illuminate the ways humans think and behave. The book takes as one of its main premises the idea that we think, feel, and act in ways that once enhanced the reproductive success of our ancestors.

The book covers fundamental issues such as the origins and function of sexual reproduction, mating behavior, human mate choice, patterns of violence in families, altruistic behavior, the evolution of brain size and the origins of language, the modular mind, and the relationship between genes and culture. It also examines the larger implications of Darwinism for how we view ourselves as a species and our sense of ourselves as a moral animal. The book includes a valuable historical introduction to evolutionary theories of behavior and concludes with an examination of the social and political ramifications of evolutionary thought. It contains numerous diagrams and illustrations, comprehensive references, summaries, and suggestions for further reading.
 

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Contents

Historical Introduction Evolution and Theories of Mind and Behaviour Darwin and After
1
11 The origin of species
2
111 New foundations
3
the 19thcentury origins
4
122 Ethology and comparative psychology in the 20th century
6
123 Interactions between comparative psychology and ethology
14
Darwin and after
16
132 Herbert Spencer 18201903
17
614 Phytogeny of the Homlnoidea
165
62 Intelligence in humans and other primates
167
622 Brain size in humans and other mammals
171
623 Origins of primate intelligence
177
testing the theories
183
Summary
190
Language and the Modular Mind
192
71 The modular mind
193

Morgan Baldwin and James
19
134 Galton and the rise of the eugenics movement
20
14 The triumph of culture
21
142 The revolt against eugenics
24
15 The rise of sociobiology and evolutionary psychology
25
Summary
30
Further reading
31
Darwins Legacy
32
211 The ghosts of Lamarcklsm
34
212 The central dogma in a modern form
35
22 Darwins difficulties
36
221 The problem of altruism
37
dilemmas over sex
38
23 Testing for adaptive significance
39
232 The testing of hypotheses
42
then and now
44
241 Evolutionary psychology or Darwinian anthropology?
45
242 Orders of explanation in evolutionary thinking
52
Summary
54
Further reading
55
The Selfish Gene
57
31 Some basic principles of genetics
58
some warnings
68
32 The unit of natural selection
72
replicators and vehicles
73
33 Kin selection and altruism
74
331 Hamiltons rule
75
332 Coefficient of relatedness
76
333 Application of Hamiltons rule and kin selection
77
34 Kin recognition
80
incest taboos and the Westermarck effect
82
35 Reciprocal altruism
84
352 Reciprocal altruism or timedelayed discrete mutualism
86
genes and vehicles revisited
88
Summary
89
Further reading
90
Mating Behaviour From Systems to Strategies
91
41 Why sex?
92
411 The costs of sex
93
412 The lottery principle
95
413 The tangled bank hypothesis or spatial heterogeneity
96
414 The Red Queen hypothesis
97
415 The DNA repair hypothesis
98
42 Sex and anisogamy
100
systems and strategies
101
44 Factors affecting expressed mating strategies
104
442 Ecological conditions
106
conflicts between rival strategies
112
Fisher and after
116
453 Testing and extending Fishers argument
118
454 Empirical tests of the TriversWillard hypothesis
120
Summary
122
Further reading
123
Sexual Selection
124
512 Inter and intrasexual selection
125
52 Consequences of intrasexual selection
126
522 Variance in reproductive success Batemans principle
129
53 Parental investment reproductive rates and operational sex ratios
131
humans and other animals
132
533 The operational sex ratio
134
534 The operational sex ratio and humans
135
54 Postcopulatory intrasexual competition
137
542 Anisogamy and sperm warfare
138
55 Intersexual selection
140
Fisher and runaway sexual selection
142
553 Good genes and indicator mechanisms
145
554 Good resources and good behaviour
147
the peacock and the widowbird
148
some questions
152
Summary
155
Further reading
156
The Evolution of Brain Size
157
61 Humans and the great apes
158
the 16 per cent advantage
162
cognitive adaptations for social exchange
198
72 Language
202
culture anatomy and grooming
205
Summary
210
Further reading
211
Understanding Human Sexual Behaviour Anthropological Approaches
212
811 Cultural distribution of mating systems
213
812 Huntergatherer societies
214
82 Sex and history
216
83 Physical comparisons between humans and other primates
218
832 Testis size
219
833 Testfs size and bodily dimorphism applied to humans
220
84 Concealed ovulation
224
843 Testing rival hypotheses of concealed ovulation
228
844 Menstruation
231
Summary
232
Further reading
233
Human Mate Choice The Evolutionary Logic of Sexual Desire
234
some expectations and approaches
235
92 Questionnaire approaches
236
922 Urgency in copulation
238
93 The use of published advertisements
240
evolutionary psychology or structural powerlessness
243
942 Female assessment of men
247
95 Fluctuating asymmetry
249
96 Male preference for youth the female menopause and longevity
251
averageness symmetry and honest signals
253
972 Faces as purveyors of information
255
Summary
259
Further reading
260
Conflict within Families and Other Groups
261
some basic theory
262
102 Maternalfetal conflict
266
1022 Conflicts over decision to miscarry
267
1023 Conflicts over blood supply
268
103 Human violence and homicide
269
a paradox?
270
1032 Infanticide
271
104 Human sexual conflicts
278
control of female sexuality
279
1042 Jealousy and violence
282
1043 Divorce and remarriage
283
Summary
285
Further reading
286
Altruism Cooperation and the Foundations of Culture
287
111 Game theory and the origins of human altruism
288
1112 Applications of game theory
295
emotion and morality
301
1122 Biological morality and induced altruism
302
inheritance and kin Investment in human culture
303
1131 Inheritance rules and marriage systems
304
practice in a contemporary Western culture
305
genes and memes
307
1141 Culture as autonomous
308
culture is a programme for fitness maximisation
309
1143 Geneculture coevolution
311
1144 Cultural evolution as the natural selection of memes or part of genememe coevolution
312
Summary
318
Epilogue The Use and Abuse of Evolutionary Theory
320
1211 Race IQ and intelligence
325
122 Social Darwinism and eugenics
327
1222 Eugenics
328
123 Evolutionary biology and sexism
330
124 Evolutionary biology and racism
334
125 The limits of nature
337
1252 The perfectibility of man
338
126 So human an animal
339
1262 Retrieving our humanity
341
Summary
343
Glossary
344
References
356
Index
371
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About the author (2000)

John Cartwright is currently a senior lecturer in the Department of Biology at Chester College of Higher Education, an institution affiliated to the University of Liverpool.

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