Phoenix and the Birds of Prey: Counterinsurgency and Counterterrorism in Vietnam
For more than thirty years the mere mention of the Phoenix Program, the CIA's top-secret effort to destroy the Viet Cong by neutralizing its "civilian" leaders, has conjured up dark images of secret assassinations, kidnappings, and the torture of civilians by the South Vietnamese and their U.S. advisers. This study explodes many of the prevailing myths and perceptions of the program and the myriad efforts that until now have been mistakenly lumped together under the term Phoenix. Drawing on recently declassified documents and interviews with more than one hundred U.S., South Vietnamese, and North Vietnamese sources, Mark Moyar dissects the various attempts to eradicate the Viet Cong infrastructure and analyzes the effectiveness of each. With balance and full documentation, he addresses serious misconceptions about these efforts and provides the most accurate and complete picture available of the allies' decapitation of the Viet Cong shadow government.
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2 The Shadow Government and the Viet Cong
3 The Shadow Government and the People
5 The New Attack on the Shadow Government
7 Informants and Agents
18 Neutralization of NonCommunist Civilians
Damage Inflicted on the Shadow Government
20 Neutralization Statistics
21 Actual Viet Cong Cadre Losses
22 Additional Setbacks for the Shadow Government
23 The Shadow Government in Decline
Interrogation Torture and Execution
9 Ralliers Documents and Photographs
12 Attempts to Make Phoenix and Phung Hoang Work
13 Other Intelligence and Operations Coordination
14 The Nature of Operations
15 The Birds of Prey
16 The South Vietnamese
17 The Americans
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activities Allied forces American advisers armed arrested ARVN attack Binh Binh Dinh province CIA advisers CIA officers CIA's civilians command Communists Cong shadow government Coordination CORDS advisers Corps COSVN counterinsurgents counterparts Dinh district and province documents Easter offensive effort enemy fight firepower guerrillas GVN leaders GVN officials GVN personnel GVN's hamlets Hanoi II Corps illegal cadres informants and agents insurgents interrogators knew Komer large numbers leadership legal cadres main force units munists namese neutralized Nguyen non-Communist North pacification forces Party peasants Phoenix centers Phoenix program Phung Hoang political cadres population prisoners province chiefs PRU adviser PRUs Quang ralliers recruit reports rural Saigon served shadow government soldiers sources South Viet South Vietnamese Special Police targeting territorial forces Tet offensive Thieu tion torture tried troops U.S. Army U.S. military usually VC cadres VC's Viet Cong Viet Cong cadres Viet Cong shadow Vietnam War
Page xi - And the children of Israel took all the women of Midian captives, and their little ones, and took the spoil of all their cattle, and all their flocks, and all their goods.
Page vi - To this end, the study is sponsored jointly by the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Special Operations and Low Intensity Conflict (OASD/SO/LIC) and the Office of the Under Secretary of State for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs (DOS/R).