From Prejudice to Destruction: Anti-Semitism, 1700-1933
Jacob Katz here presents a major reinterpretation of modern anti-Semitism, which blends history of ideas about the Jews gradually became transformed and then, around 1879, picked up so much social force as to result in the premeditated and systematic destruction of the Jewish people of Europe.
Mr. Katz revises the prevalent thesis that medieval and modern animosities against Jews were fundamentally different. He also rejects the scapegoat theory, according to which the Jews were merely a lightning rod for underlying economic and social tensions. On the contrary, he argues, there were very real tensions between Jews and non-Jews, because the Jews were a highly visible and cohesive group and so came into conflict with non-Jews in competing for social and economic rewards.
In the late 19th century, Mr. Katz argues, hatred of the Jews shifted from their religion to more essential aspects of their character and behavior. The term "anti-Semitism," he explains, which first came into use around 1870, was meant to describe this change. Thus, ironically, just as Jews were being integrated into the political state, skillfull propagandists such as Theodore Fritzche and Houston Stewart Chamberlain were extraordinarily successful in spreading notions of Jewish racial inferority and its threat to the pure Aryan stock. And so when Hitler came on the scene, the seeds of Jewish race hatred were widely sown.
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The Rationalist Reorientation
Philosophy the Heir of Theology
Nationalism and Romanticism
Incitement and Riot
The Christian State
The Jewish Stereotype and Assimilation
The Conservatives Rearguard Action
The Austrian Prelude
The Hungarian Prelude
The Revolutionary Promise and the Catholic Reaction
The Socialist Indictment
The Liberal Ambiguity
Jews and Freemasons
The German Liberals Image of the Jew
Feuerbach Bauer Marx
The Hungarian Variation
The Austrian Extension
Racism and the Nazi Climax
AntiSemitism Through the Ages