Elements of Sonata Theory: Norms, Types, and Deformations in the Late-Eighteenth-Century Sonata
Elements of Sonata Theory is a comprehensive, richly detailed rethinking of the basic principles of sonata form in the decades around 1800. This foundational study draws upon the joint strengths of current music history and music theory to outline a new, up-to-date paradigm for understanding the compositional choices found in the instrumental works of Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, and their contemporaries: sonatas, chamber music, symphonies, overtures, and concertos. In so doing, it also lays out the indispensable groundwork for anyone wishing to confront the later adaptations and deformations of these basic structures in the nineteenth and earlier twentieth centuries.
Combining insightful music analysis, contemporary genre theory, and provocative hermeneutic turns, the book brims over with original ideas, bold and fresh ways of awakening the potential meanings within a familiar musical repertory. Sonata Theory grasps individual compositions-and each of the individual moments within them-as creative dialogues with an implicit conceptual background of flexible, ever-changing historical norms and patterns. These norms may be recreated as constellations "compositional defaults," any of which, however, may be stretched, strained, or overridden altogether for individualized structural or expressive purposes. This book maps out the terrain of that conceptual background, against which what actually happens-or does not happen-in any given piece may be assessed and measured.
The Elements guides the reader through the standard (and less-than-standard) formatting possibilities within each compositional space in sonata form, while also emphasizing the fundamental role played by processes of large-scale circularity, or "rotation," in the crucially important ordering of musical modules over an entire movement. The book also illuminates new ways of understanding codas and introductions, of confronting the generating processes of minor-mode sonatas, and of grasping the arcs of multimovement cycles as wholes. Its final chapters provide individual studies of alternative sonata types, including "binary" sonata structures, sonata-rondos, and the "first-movement form" of Mozart's concertos.
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Terms and Abbreviations
About the Authors
CHAPTER TWOSonata Form as a WholeFoundational Considerations
CHAPTER THREEThe Medial Caesura and the TwoPart Exposition
CHAPTER FOURThe Continuous Exposition
CHAPTER FIVEThe Primary Theme P
CHAPTER SIXThe Transition TR
CHAPTER FIFTEENThe Three and FourMovement Sonata Cycle
CHAPTER SIXTEENSonata Types and the Type 1 Sonata
CHAPTER SEVENTEENThe Type 2 Sonata
CHAPTER EIGHTEENRondos and the Type 4 Sonata
CHAPTER NINETEENThe Type 5 SonataFundamentals
The Opening Ritornello
Solo 1 + Ritornello 2
From Solo 2 through Ritornello 4
CHAPTER SEVENThe Secondary Theme S and Essential Expositional Closure EECInitial Considerations
CHAPTER EIGHTSComplicationsEEC Deferral and Apparent Double Medial Caesuras TMB
CHAPTER NINEThe Closing Zone C
CHAPTER TENThe Development Developmental Space
CHAPTER ELEVENThe Recapitulation Recapitulatory Space Recapitulatory Rotation
CHAPTER TWELVENonNormative Openings of the Recapitulatory RotationAlternatives and Deformations
CHAPTER THIRTEENParageneric SpacesCoda and Introduction
CHAPTER FOURTEENSonata Form in Minor Keys
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Allegro articulated Bach’s bars begins binary C. P. E. Bach cadence cadential caesura-fill Caplin chapter Charles Rosen Classical coda composer compositional concept continuous exposition deformation developmental space discussion dominant E-flat effect elided episode example expanded exposition’s finale follows forte function G Minor Haydn Haydn’s Symphony I:HC MC I:PAC idea implications initial instance interpretation J. C. Bach major major-mode material medial caesura minor mode minuet module movement of Beethoven’s movement of Mozart’s Mozart’s concertos Mozart’s Symphony nontonic normally normative occurs onset opening option orchestral Overture P-based Piano Concerto Piano Sonata preceding procedure proper recapitulation recapitulatory rotation repeat restatement retransition rhetorical ritornello rondeau rondo S-space S-theme Schubert’s second rotation situation slow movement solo exposition soloist sonata form Sonata Theory sonata-rondo structure subdominant submediant suggest thematic theme tonal tonal resolution tonic Type 2 sonata typically V:HC V:PAC variant zone