Handbook for Highway Engineers: Containing Information Ordinarily Used in the Design and Construction of Roads Warranting an Expenditure of $5,000 to $30,000 Per Mile

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McGraw-Hill, 1912 - Roads - 493 pages
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Page 329 - ... and all labor and materials required in the performance of the work, but that portion of each pile cut off shall be estimated and paid for by the lineal foot as "piles cut off.
Page 60 - Acting on this theory the thickness of the stone varies from four inches to sixteen inches, the lesser thickness being placed over good gravel or sand, the greater over heavy clay, and varying thicknesses on other soils. In cases where the surfacing...
Page 63 - After the sub-grade has been prepared and has been accepted by the engineer, a layer of broken stone of the approved size and quality for bottom course shall be spread evenly over it to such a depth that it shall have. when rolled, the required thickness. The depth of the loose stone shall be gaged by laying upon the sub-grade cubical blocks of wood of the proper size and spreading the stone evenly to conform to them.
Page 102 - The calcareous rocks are of many colors, according to the amount and character of the impurities present. Metamorphic Rocks. " Rocks of this class are such as have been produced by prolonged action of physical and chemical forces (heat, pressure, moisture, etc.) on both sedimentary and igneous rocks alike. The foliated types (gneiss, schist, etc.) represent an advanced stage of metamorphism on a large scale (regional...
Page 129 - Diff. Elev. Hor. Dist. Diff. Elev. Hor. Dist. Diff Elev. Hor. Dist. Diff.
Page 336 - ... shall form a wave before the wheels of the roller. The road shall be puddled as many times as may be necessary to secure satisfactory results. After the wave of grout has been produced over the whole section of the road, this portion of the road shall be left to dry, after which it shall be opened to travel. Where necessary, enough screenings or approved sand shall be spread on top of the macadam to leave a wearing surface at least three-eighths of an inch thick. This wearing surface shall be...
Page 332 - SUBGRADE After the surface of the subgrade has been properly shaped, and before any broken stone or other material is put on, it shall be thoroughly rolled and compacted. This rolling shall be done with a steam road roller weighing approximately ten tons, and so built that its wheels shall cover when rolling the entire width of its track. The roller must be of a kind approved by the state engineer. All hollows and depressions which develop during the rolling shall...
Page 327 - ... pounds per square inch, and an elongation of not less than 20 per cent in 8 inches.
Page 327 - The steel must be uniform in character for each specified kind. The finished bars, plates, and shapes must be free from cracks on the faces or corners, and have a clean, smooth finish. No work shall be put upon any steel at or near the blue temperature or between that of boiling water and of ignition of hard-wood sawdust.
Page 316 - The weight after burning, less the weight of the crucible, gives the amount of fixed carbon plus the mineral matter. The fixed carbon is then burned off in the open crucible until a constant weight is obtained; the crucible cooled and weighed. This weight is the crucible plus the mineral matter. The mineral matter subtracted from the combined weight of fixed carbon and mineral matter gives the fixed carbon.

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