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The geographical social and historical background
The Ottoman Heyday
The rise and zenith of the Ottoman Empire
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Abbas Abdallah Abu'l-Dhahab administration Ahmad Pasha al-Ahsa al-Jazzar Aleppo allies amir Anatolia appointed Arab army Azeban Baghdad Bashir Basra Beirut beylicate Britain British government Cairo caliphate campaign chief Christian command conquest Cromer Damascus death defeated Druze dynasty Egyptian eighteenth century elite established European expedition faction Fakhr al-Din Faqariyya Faysal Fertile Crescent followed forces French governor of Damascus governorship grand vezir grandees Hasan Hashimite Hijaz Hurewitz Husayn Iraq Iraqi provinces Islam Isma'il Istanbul Janissaries khedive lands later Lebanese Lebanon Mahmud Mamluk Mamluk sultanate Maronite ment military Muhammad Ali's Murad Muslim Mustafa nationalists Nile officers Ottoman Empire Ottoman government Ottoman sultan Palestine Persia Pilgrimage political Qasimiyya regime Reign of Sultan revolt Ridwan ruler Sa'ud Safavid Selim sent Shah Shaykh Shihab Sidon successor Sudan Sulayman Sykes-Picot Agreement Syria territory tion tribal tribes troops Turkish Upper Egypt Uthman viceroy Wahhabi western Fertile Crescent Yusuf Zahir