The Human and the Divine in History: Herodotus and the Book of Daniel
The Human and the Divine in History investigates the possibility that the author of Daniel knew and drew upon the Histories of Herodotus. Daniel uses and develops Herodotean concepts such as the succession of world empires, dynastic dreams, and the focus on both human and divine cauration in explaining historical events. A comparative reading of these two texts illuminates Daniel's theology of history, showing it to be neither as exclusively eschatological nor as sectarian as is often supposed. Rather, it is specifically the end of exile—understood as foreign domination—that Daniel envisions for the entire Jewish people.
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action Alexander Antiochus Antiochus IV apocalyptic appears Aramaic Artabanus Assyria author of Daniel Babylon Babylonian Belshazzar Bhaman Yasht biblical Bickerman book of Daniel book of Judith Cambyses campaign Caponigro century BCE chapter Collins conceming conﬂict court Croesus Ctesias Cyrus Daniel and Herodotus Darius deﬁnitive Delphi Denkard Deuteronomistic History Diodorus dominion dream visions dynasty empires Exagoge exile Ezra fact ﬁfth ﬁgure ﬁnal ﬁnd ﬁrst foreign kings four kingdoms fourth God’s gods Greece Greek historiography heavenly Hebrew Hellenism Hellenistic period Herodotus’s historians Histories of Herodotus historiography holy identiﬁed imagery inﬂuence interpretation Israel Jerusalem Jewish Jews Judaism king’s literature Maccabees Mandell and Freedman Mede mentioned Momigliano Nebuchad Nebuchadnezzar Nielsen noted oracles parallels Persian Empire Persian kings Polybius Press princes prophecy prophets reference reﬂect relationship role sages scholars seen Seleucid signiﬁcant similar Solon speciﬁc story Studies symbolic temple theology Thucydides tradition vision in ch wisdom wise Xerxes Yasht