A view from the highlands: archaeological studies in honour of Charles Burney
Interest in the mountainous regions of the Syro-Mesopotamian plain came relatively late in the development of Near Eastern archaeology. In the psyche of scholars, who were attracted initially to the civilizations of the lowlands, the edge of the rugged highland terrain formed a disciplinary boundary as much as a geographical one. While an initial spurt of interest in the ancient 'mountain cultures' of Anatolia was expressed in the early 1900s, it was short-lived. Subsequently, archaeological explorations in the highest altitudes in Anatolia languished until the 1950s and the arrival of Charles Burney, who through a series of pioneering projects rediscovered the Kingdom of Urartu and prepared solid foundations for the future study of earlier periods. Always probing and speculative, Charles Burney has been a source of inspiration for archaeologists working in the highlands of east Anatolia, Trans-Caucasus and north-west Iran. Despite the difficulties that modern political boundaries presented in this geographically broken terrain, he has managed to offer engaging accounts of its pre-classical past without ever loosing sight of its human element. The essays gathered in this volume are a reflection of an archaeological community that wishes to pay tribute to a scholar whose panoramic vision of antiquity is rivaled only by the wide extent of his generosity, expressed in so many ways, to fellow workers in the field. Althought this is a substantial volume of essays, written by pupils, friends and colleagues, the contributors are merely representatives of a much larger number who join them in honoring him.
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List of Figures Vlllxv
List of Maps XVXVI
Charles Burney in the Near Eastern Highlands 311
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Achaemenid Adilcevaz Aliler Kale ancient Ankara Anzaf Ararat plain Armenia Arslantepe artefacts Assyrian Ayanis basalt grit Bedeni bowl brown burials Burney carination Caucasian Caucasus ceramic chaff Chalcolithic Charles Burney chronology core culture Dinkha Dyson Dzhaparidze Early Bronze Age Early Trans-Caucasian east eastern Anatolia edited Euphrates excavations exterior Figure fortress Georgian Godin Gora grit temper grit-tempered fabric Haftavan hand-made Hasanlu highlands Hoyiik Hurrian inscription Iran Iron Age Istanbul Kangavar Kura-Araxes Kura-Araxes culture Kurgan lion pins located medium fired Mesopotamia mica Middle Bronze millennium B. C. Neolithic northern obsidian Orange Ware Ozfirat painted period Phase plain pottery quartz grit region River road route Rusa Sagona Salvini settlement Sevin sherds skeleton slipped and burnished south Caucasus southern stone StW Str Tbilisi temple tomb Trialeti upper Urartian Urartu Urkesh Urmia valley VIIC walls western wheel-made Xenophon Yanik Tepe