Popular Culture and the Public Sphere in the Rhineland, 1800-1850

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Cambridge University Press, Aug 9, 2007 - History - 365 pages
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The age of revolution challenged the ancien régime's political world, introducing Europeans to fresh ideals of citizenship. German society was no less affected. Following the Napoleonic era, a political culture of partisan choice undermined the official restoration of absolutism. Bourgeois and popular classes took part in the political landscape of civil society, producing an impressive social base for participatory politics by the 1830s. Because of severe restrictions on speech and assembly, ordinary Germans formed political opinions in irregular ways. This book looks at the sites and forms of culture that facilitated political communication. With chapters devoted to reading, singing, public space, carnival, violence and religion, James Brophy argues that popular culture played a critical role in linking ordinary Rhinelanders to the public sphere. Moving beyond conventional explanations of opinion formation, he exposes the broad cultural infrastructure that enabled popular classes to join the political nation.
 

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Contents

these songs as political symbols22 On a popular level this
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parodied or piously sung the songs formed another cultural arena
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ridicule shame and misery35 One ballad sung in Napoleons voice
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Europe42 In such a song as Ach was hab ich
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Napoleon shouted by Rhenish crowds throughout the Vormarz period is
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trade publishers anthologized patriotic songs long into the nineteenth
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Germans sang patriotic songs for many reasons but their continued
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Not surprisingly the Hambach song program also included Arndts Des
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Momus carnival society was founded in Maastricht in 1840 and
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Attempts to demonstrate carnival traditions produced voluminous
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officials reported nightly assaults on Gendarmes during Kerpens
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time and structure
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of feasts and festivals the elasticized temporal and organizational
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juridical term of sittings or sessions Sitzungen had two platforms
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Carnivalists thus transformed a carnival parade into a political procession
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composition Rhenish clubs in the 1820s and 1830s thus remained
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songs that one can appreciate the sarcastic songs in the
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alarmed French censors in Colmar who disapproved of wandering singers
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These singers often sang their songs on simple platforms
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of bench songs offer evidence that popular audiences followed and
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striking for it fails to resolve the political crisis and
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Prussian and Baden armies104 In Baden the Palatinate and the
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the twentieth century Musenklange aus Deutschlands Leierkasten a
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the day113 In 1838 Ignaz Blasius an organ maker from
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jester marks Bonapartes foolhardy hubris but whether Napoleon is a
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songs of the period The reason for its popularity is
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freedom and subjected to ovation123 Poland clubs with their banquets
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The formal marriage between Poland songs and Germanys liberal
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mein Schicksal zu horen circulated as fliers and reproduced in
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never came close to success producing instead approximately twenty
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into a folk song Kunstlied im Volksmund but others did
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The wide distribution and positive reception of the Bankellied suggests
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songwriters of his day150 These songs aspired to popularity but
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songs do not center on secular political freedoms but rather
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is probably not a confession of democratic radicalism but instead
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By contrast popular songs also arose that attacked the bishop
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staged public performances reprintings in dozens of newspapers
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Hoffmann von Fallerslebens Rheinlied and Rheinleid Rhine Song and
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premature death in 1845 Freiligrath pointed out in a letter
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from the Frankfurt region for example reported workers singing the
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song can be found that Prussia specifically sang188 Official attempts
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that provide political bearing are those celebrating the peace in
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of whom came from Landau and the Kaiserslautern area convened
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Boppard tavern in August 1833 beat up and ejected a
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demolished the house of James Cockerill a leading wool manufacturer
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the singing was a contrived event to ostracize the officers
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nicht verloren215 The equally influential Musikalischer Hausschatz der
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April 1848221 Prussian authorities banned the opera in 1830222 The
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metropoles Flauberts assumptions about songs and the sites of singing
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chapter 3
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the Duke of Coburgs lackluster response
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festivity posed to governments These liberty trees literally remapped the
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medium for subjects to contest an imposed social order and
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181519 the Nuremberg Celebration of Durer 1828 the Hambach
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politicalconservative seals of the king and Church18 Yet working and
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simultaneous bell ringing and special prayers for the king But
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deafening silence of not toasting the king31 In sum notwithstanding
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festivity Their attempt to constrain parish festivals merits our attention
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Gebehochzeiten village rites demanding food liquor and money from
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during this time51 In the 1830s Geilenkirchens Landrat apparently
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followed the Aachen uprising of 1830 Because the Aachen riots
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Hambach distributed Hambach song sheets throughout villages which
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speeches menacing crowds subversive students cockadewearing civil
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songs were rarely illegal or considered seditious to the state
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at a recognizable Prussian pose The puppet spoke in a
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Fig 7 Wilhelm Kleinenbroichs Kolner Hanneschen im Jahre
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Honor Fatherland and Freedom87 In 1827 Prussian police arrested two
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publicacommongestureofdefianceintheVormarzperiod100Respectable
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planting a liberty tree hoisting tricolors singing revolutionary songs and
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Such examples underscore the growing commodification of politics
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Jacobins in the 1790s123 In numerous places in the 1830s
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Bavaria These victories brought about a wave of triumphal publicity
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Ludwig Hoffmann a jurist who chronicled the popular uprisings
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political ideas of the day as discussed in chapter
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adorned with ribbons were set up but their erection was
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this
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the citizenry155 Before this club Juch read one of his
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To what degree then did the ideas of Hambach penetrate
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Cochem tavern Prussian subjects peddled Wirths Deutschlands Pflichten
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remarriage marriage outside the community and children out of
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charivari politique177 but this point should not distract us
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outrage toward state authority181 As we will see in chapter
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unrepentant wood thieves who not only threatened the forester who
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vote for the return of the archbishop196 Although the promise
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Differentiating between legitimate uses of this protest from those
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systems if not also on the dispositions for popular political
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regarding the shortage an interesting moment of official news
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liberals to overthrow the government217 In 1830 the rumor spread
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but only 10 emerged during the remainder of the decade
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The second trend however shifts away from simple extortion toward
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another announced a demonstration at New Market and that The
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taverns in groups larger than usual and made threats of
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constitution248 While bourgeois liberals gradually publicized the issues
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and utility underpinning popular grievances253 Popular politics not only
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who cant get hold of a weapon who must suffice
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increasingly tighter restrictions over the course of the Vormarz In
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St Monday led to an afternoon chorus of revolutionary songs
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songs in 1832 and 1833 and such behaviour continued through
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was tried as coconspirator with Father Anton Joseph Binterim for
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absent in the governors description are cliches of shrill demagogues
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rather sites in which drinkers sharpened differences between political
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statutes stipulated that a donor of 100 thalers also sat
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These ceremonious receptions in the Palatinate also included citizen
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that von Groote could not finish his speech He and
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Clemens August and even the closing of the Rheinische Zeitung
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directly like before from the municipalities327 Although clearly critical
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passed out torches for free thus encouraging a large crowd332
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band struck up the Marseillaise a scandalous provocation that
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Germans were more in contact with the political public sphere
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easily but thats not the point The popular contest for
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chapter 4
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Fool on the steam ships as well as raising the
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surely colored by the steamboat outing a year before when
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slow decline Although the patriciate continued to participate in public
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the survival of street carnival Yet other contemporaries noted the
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Lenten season on Wednesday and thereafter In spite of the
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open to all costumed citizens but rather a closed pageant
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of the dozens of carnival traditions
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their general assembly a festivalorganizing parliament78 Rejecting the
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during carnival week whichprovided alessexclusive publicaccess tosatiric
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political subjects Although Latin quotes and allusions to literature and
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another frequent target of ridicule and criticism This washtub speech
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and Belgian revolts for independence invited reflection on and judgment
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A handwritten unpublished washtub speech from January 1844 by
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By foregrounding violence between civilians and Prussian soldiers the
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named his marshals and adjutants During another session on 19
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insolence the government set procedures into motion to arrest Pfeffer
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knew first hand the force of washtub oratory118 As a
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underwent numerous revisions after its first appearance in 1829 included
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liberty and freedom as a carnival song With such lines
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singing RhineHessian ballads of sorrow Klagelieder reported state
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Along with songbooks the distribution of pamphlets flysheets and
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The citys police commissioner judged the acerbic commentary as critical
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Even Karl Marxs Rheinische Zeitung paid tribute to carnivals public
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the Neuer Mainzer NarrenZeitung160 Karlsruhes Narrenspiegel whose
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for Dusseldorfs club suggests that the tradition had evolved into
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New Years greeting the following year was even more inflammatory
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In its conclusion the poem declares that nothing is grimmer
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parades
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famous carnival in Europe was hailed as the sister city
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Bourgeois notables also used carnival parades and public balls to
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1836 monument building 1838 stockmarket mania 1839 gymnastic
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Hanswursts
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chapter 5
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1845 and 18463 These incidents of violence lacked any initial
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Trier 20 Koblenz 25 Cologne 27 and Aachen 31
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followed by gendarmes 23 percent police 11 percent and civil
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civilians and soldiers contributes to broader interpretations of how a
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against the larger backdrop of the first threequarters of the
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a comparative framework
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suggests that trends in the Prussian Rhineland differ from other
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military he writes points to a state in which legal
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increasingly resented37 Finally Ludtkes thesis of citadel practice is
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mechanization of carding spinning weaving and the concomitant
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woefully undersecured city46 While Prussian memoranda questioned
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thus documenting the deliberation with which workers planned and
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150 workers in the Aachen riots Wishing to make an
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The reaction to the news of Belgian revolution and Aachens
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authorities They further noted that town residents pursued civil
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scarcity75 Wood theft for example became an extensive problem after
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of the village Thereafter the government detached a military commando
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wounded boy lay on 4 March 1830 Judging the assembled
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Following these incidents of the last six months the bakers
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The connection between smuggling politics and violence against
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civilians and soldiers All parties agreed however that Arenz took
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with difficulty Four people were hospitalized with casualties ranging
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antiPrussian views106 Another perpetrator a wool spinner by the name
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Even after the riot the mayor still worried that the
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Hence the soldiers insistence to posture as a separate social
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Additional fights point to a broader problem of offduty military
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First if fights arose mostly because of soldiers attention toward
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one from a bayonet The unprovoked military intervention and their
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Cologne 1830 1846 Neuss 1839 and Dusseldorf 1845 This standard
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setting the abstractions of social disciplining and social order
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implied fear of what these kinds of tumults portended Commenting
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threw out soldiers because they were Prussian147 Civilians also fought
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which doubled as a protest march two petitions circulated among
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transformed unruliness into exemplary civic order Popular and bourgeois
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popular fronts165 For such democrats as Gottfried Kinkel civil militias
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chapter 6
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arrested By evening angry crowds formed at the church After
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by twentyfive mounted artillery officers to the citys perimeter the
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many states in postNapoleonic Europe that not only concluded new
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nation building and social identity16 This extensive research impinges on
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Prussian administration the religious support one might expect They
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the Catholic Church fell back on the civil guarantee of
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independently of parish priests and Church decrees can be partially
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every procession acquire a bishopissued certificate of approval30 In 1825
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endorsed a ban on processions When the government solicited priests
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attempted to stamp out the colportage of popular piety above
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attracted 40055 An anonymous denunciation of the growing number
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Alternkirchen He tried to comply with Church regulations and
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efforts of a wellorganized church working closely with its lower
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officially inscribed Landwehr sabers72 The district government initially
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and across borders In spite of repeated bans threats and
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ministries advised officials against any police intervention in Kevelaers
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confidentially among district governors and dynastic rulers in the German
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It was concludes Thomas Nipperdey a founding document of political
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the journal approvingly refereed the sermons of Fathers Nellessen
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speeches and lithographic images on prints handkerchiefs and snuff
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Also emanating from Belgium was the socalled Spinelli letter a
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citizenship before the law Burgerstaat the government had failed to
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promoted confessional animosity and incited hate against the Prussian
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Was Binterims pamphlet read and discussed? Similar to calendars
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public contention
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has increasingly sharpened Although the intentions of such authors he
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strove to keep discrete the spheres separating the political from
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poll tax but also stated that he would welcome the
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The doyen of an influential circle of oldchurch Catholics and
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regions of CologneBonn 10 Dusseldorf 9 MoselleEifel 8 and
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Schummer remonstrated against Catholic girls working for Protestant
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newspapers in such a way that he intended to incite
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Protestants210 Even before the Cologne Troubles priests expressed
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defend their faith Catholic sermons fusing oral and print cultures
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Catholics harassed Protestants publicly slandered their faith and further
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The rhetoric of revolution is of course overdone with greater
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important in the neighboring districts of the border to demonstrate
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upbringing of their children and determined with whom they should
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archbishop of GnesenPosen combined with the excitement over the fifth
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Page 24 - The CANNIBAL'S PROGRESS ; or the dreadful horrors of French invasion, as displayed by the Republican officers and soldiers, in their perfidy, rapacity, ferociousness, and brutality, exercised towards the innocent inhabitants of Germany.
Page 26 - Juli 1833 und der folgenden Tage gegen Dr. Wirth, Dr. Siebenpfeiffer, Hochdörfer, Scharpff, Becker, Dr. Grosse, Dr. Pistor, Rost und Baumann, sämmtlich der directen, jedoch ohne Erfolg gebliebenen Aufforderung zum Umstürze der Staats-Regierung — ferner gegen Schüler, Savoye, Geib und Eiffler, die drei Erstem eines förmlichen Complotts zum Umstürze der Staats-Regierung, und der Letztere der Mitschuld an diesem Verbrechen angeklagt.

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