## Fundamentals of Plane Surveying |

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180 degrees accuracy adjustment alidade altitude bubble angle subtended angular balance line base line bench marks bubble tube calculated carrier wave catenary centre chainage chord circular curve clamp clothoid coefficient collimation condition equation correction curvature datum deflection angle difference in height direction Dumpy level elevation field of view frequency give graduations ground horizontal circle horizontal staff included angle index heads instrument invar latitude and departure least squares line of sight mass haul diagram matrix mean sea level method micrometer normal equations observation equations obtained optical perpendicular plane plotting position procedure Quadrant bearing radius reduced level refraction reticule rotation Section Simpson's rule spirit level stadia intercept stadia lines standard error station sub-chord superelevation swing tacheometry tangent length tangent screw tape target telescope temperature theodolite transition curve traverse triangulation tribrach trunnion axis usually vernier vertical angle vertical circle volume wavelength zero